20 tips to help your houseplants survive the winter


20 tips to help your houseplants survive the winter

It may seem like winter is nothing but a death sentence for your beloved houseplants, but the coldest months are simply the time to use more specialized plant care. Far from being a period of inactivity or failed household foliage, winter can still be a healthy time for your plants. Winter even has the potential to bring out the most vibrant colors and blooms of the entire year for some plant species, including camellias, winter jasmines, and many types of witch hazel.

During winter, many plants undergo dormancy, in which they are still alive but suspend the growing processes. Different plant species employ a variety of genetic adaptations designed to maintain health against the dropping temperatures and lack of sunlight. For instance, seeds from plants native to colder climates spend the winter metabolizing to prepare for spring. Photosynthesis and respiration both slow down for many plants, minimizing the amount of sugar the plants have to metabolize in the cold. A plant shedding its leaves is also strategic, as doing so allows for nutrient conservation.

Eventually, once temperatures rise again, plants will know to end their dormancy periods. This is largely due to plants’ “temperature memories,” which enable them to keep track of interactions between proteins and measure time and temperature to deduce when spring has arrived.

Of course, even if your plants have their own methods of fending for themselves against the harsh elements of winter, a little specialized cold-weather care can go a long way, too. Stacker used a variety of home and gardening resources to compile a list of 20 tips to help you better care for your houseplants in the winter. They vary from techniques to manipulate light and heat to watering, cleaning, and potting methods that can keep the cold from getting the better of your plants. It should be kept in mind, however, that these tips are largely generalized; the specific needs of plants differ based on their species and origins. It’s always important to research each particular plant type beforehand.

Read on to learn how to best care for your indoor plants through the year’s coldest months.

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Make up for lost sunlight

One of the biggest threats to your plants’ well-being during winter is a lack of sunlight. To compensate for this, put your plants in a nice, bright spot to make the most of daylight hours—however short they may be. If you can, rotate your plants throughout the day to guarantee that each side gets its fair share of rays.

Nor Gal // Shutterstock

Ease up on fertilizer

Winter is a hibernation period for many plants, and they require a lot less fertilizer than in the spring—and sometimes none at all. Check the specific requirements for each type of plant you have, but mostly, you’ll want to hold off—or at least cut back—on fertilizing plants during the winter since they’re not actively growing.

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Be on the lookout for pests

Certain pests spring to life during the winter, targeting indoor plants in particular. Keep a careful eye on your houseplants to make sure they aren’t infested. If you find bugs like aphids or mites on your plants, isolate infested plants and treat them with pesticide or a gentle dish soap solution.


Use a grow light on dark days

Some winter days are so short and overcast, the sun barely peeks out at all. To make sure your plants still get the light they need, use an LED grow light—or, as a cheaper option, screw a full-spectrum light bulb into a nearby lamp—to illuminate the leaves and keep them healthy.

JRP Studio // Shutterstock

Be mindful of vacation care

Many of us travel during the winter holidays, but definitely make sure to not leave your plants out in the cold when you do. Water as normal before leaving, but then consider placing your plants in the bathtub together so they can take advantage of a slightly more humid atmosphere while you’re gone. For longer trips, consider having someone come by and care for the plants in your stead.

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André Hofmeister // Flickr

Wash your windows

Placing your plants in front of a sunny window won’t do much good if the window is too dusty or grimy to let the sun’s nutrients in. Wash your windows on both sides so the maximum amount of sunlight is getting in.

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Dima Berlin // Shutterstock

Pay attention to humidity levels

Winter is notoriously dry, and your houseplants may suffer from the lack of moisture in the air. To keep things just humid enough, consider buying a humidifier to keep the atmosphere just right.

rattiya lamrod // Shutterstock

Keep your plants together

There’s power in numbers, and clustering your plants together during the winter can help them share nutrients and moisture. There are many easy DIY fixes to accomplish this, including moving your plants onto a large plate or building them a nice indoor window box to act as a kind of seasonal co-living space for them.


Don’t water at summer rates

Just like fertilizer, plants need a lot less water in winter. Cut back on the amount you water your plants—to gauge if you’re giving them the right amount, place a finger about an inch or two deep into the soil and see if the soil below the surface is still wet. Even if the topsoil is dry, you won’t need to water the plant again until the soil a little deeper down is also getting there.

Studio Light and Shade // Shutterstock

Avoid cold air sneaking in

Drafts, breezes, and gusts of wind all need to be watched out for in the winter. To keep your plants from falling victim to sudden changes in temperature, position them away from vents, windows, doors, or other spots where air can slip through from outside.


Evade sources of overheating

It’s natural to want to protect your plants from the excess cold by turning up the thermostat, but too much heat can be just as big a threat to them. As fireplaces, radiators, ovens, and other heating systems blaze up, make sure your plants aren’t in the line of fire.

Evgeniya Uvarova // Shutterstock

Be strategic with the spray bottle

Although misting is a popular technique for giving plants a dose of moisture, there is a right way and a wrong way to go about it. Mist in the morning so they have time to soak it in throughout the day, while it’s still light out, and be sure not to neglect the bottom of your leaves.

Olivier Le Moal // Shutterstock

Maintain a constant temperature range

Between heating systems going on and off throughout the day and degrees dropping dramatically at night, temperatures fluctuate during the winter. Houseplants, however, require a steady atmosphere, so move them away from windows at night and keep them in a well-ventilated area during the day to give them as much consistency as possible.

Tanja Esser // Shutterstock

Check before you bring the entire garden inside

Not all outdoor plants will need to be brought inside for winter—some, even surprisingly, may thrive outdoors during the cold months. When deciding which garden plants to move indoors for the winter, check the USDA plant hardiness zone map to see which ones are best left where they are.

BlokPhoto // Shutterstock

Quarantine outside plants before moving them indoors

Once you determine which outdoor plants you’ll be bringing indoors for the winter, it’s best to isolate these plants for a short time before making the switch. During this period, check your plants to make sure they aren’t bringing any outside pests in with them, and use the time to prune any superfluous stems and leaves, as well. After that, they will be ready to make the move inside.

popcorner // Shutterstock

Wipe down plants to keep dust away

Many household plants accumulate dust during the winter, which can be detrimental to plant growth since that dust can block out sunlight and even carry disease. Periodically clean the leaves of your plants by gently wiping them down with a slightly wet cloth or sponge.

Pixel-Shot // Shutterstock

Wait until spring to repot

As previously mentioned, many plants hibernate during the winter. Since they aren’t undergoing dramatic growth, it’s unnecessary to repot them for a while, especially since the repotting process can be trying on plants and their roots, making it a hard process for them to cope with during their weaker winter months. Hold off on any winter pot switches and save the repotting for the spring.

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Inspect frequently with a watchful eye

Plant owners should keep a close eye on their indoor gardens during the tough winter months. You can do everything by the book, but if you’re not keeping tabs on how your plants are responding, you could miss warning signs that something doesn’t agree with them. Check in with your plants frequently, inspecting them for pests, spots, drying, discoloration, and any other prudent characteristics.


Refresh soil a few times per winter

Although you don’t have to repot your plants until spring, it is still good to refresh plants’ soil from time to time during the winter. This includes trimming and rustling up root balls to keep the soil breathing.

Pencil case // Shutterstock

Keep limb growth in check

Many plants can develop dead leaves or long, leggy limbs in the winter because of a lack of sunlight. Trim and prune unnecessary growths like these to keep the plants in top shape for spring.

Article was originally published by Stacker. Written by: Andrea Vale

Cebu Blue Pothos: Care Guide + Problems to Avoid

Cebu Blue pothos or scitentifically known as Epipremnum pinnatum ‘Cebu Blue,’ is a tropical plant with round, silvery-blue leaves. It’s as simple to grow as other pothos, but its foliage is more attractive. 

This pothos is one of the few plants having blue leaves in nature. It requires little particular maintenance so it may add color and texture to any house. 

Learn about Cebu Blue’s growing and care needs. 

A Quick Introduction

The Centipede Tongavine plant is endemic to Cebu in the Philippines, growing in tropical woods and gardens. In its native environment, this vine may grow 40 feet (12 meters) with 20-inch (50 cm) leaves. 

This pothos plant’s foliage is distinctive. Narrow, oval, silvery-blue leaves. They glisten in the proper light. The foliage has a corrugated appearance because of the well-defined leaf veins. 

Cebu Blue pothos grows 10 – 13 feet (3 to 4 meters) as an indoor plant. This plant likes climbing, so let its tendrils trail or dangle (ideal for a hanging basket). The leaves will acquire Monstera-like fenestrations if you give them a moss pole. 

Care for Cebu Blue Pothos 

Cebu Blue Pothos is unassuming. Resistant to most pests and illnesses. However, it might suffer from improper soil mix or a gloomy part of the house. 

Growing Needs

cebu blue pothos


This pothos plant requires indirect light. Place it in a west- or east-facing room 2 to 3 feet from a window to get enough light. 

Don’t place this plant in a dark or bright room. Low light circumstances will inhibit its growth, creating tiny leaves and barren, leggy stalks. Direct sun may burn leaves and cause them to lose their blue foliage. 


Plant in well-drained soil that will still hold moisture. The tropical plant is an epiphyte. It cannot endure drought and is killed by soggy soil. Using the correct substrate keeps it healthy. 

If you live in a hot area or your house is dry, mix two parts peat-based potting mix and one part perlite. This mix drains well yet maintains the plant, preventing wilting. 

A chunkier mix is appropriate for humid, low-light, or overwatered plants. Mix perlite, potting soil, and also orchid bark. This mix dries quicker between waterings, preventing root rot. 


It’s a low-water plant. Before you water, let the soil dry to 2 inches (5 cm), then water the plant. Pour water into the pot until it seeps through the drainage holes to uniformly moisten the soil. 

Never entirely dry soil. This pothos variety can last several days without water. However, the plant will grow weaker and more prone to pests and illnesses if it’s regularly underwatered. Water regularly. 

Prevent root rot by avoiding extra water. 


Keep Cebu Blue at 65°F and 85°F (18°C and 29°C). Like other tropical plants, it stops growing around 55°F (13°C) and may be permanently damaged at 50°F (10°C) for many days. 


This plant does fine in most houses. Although, this plant prefers humidity exceeding 40%. 

In dry houses or humidity below 30%, leaf tips may become brown and dry. Consistent watering and potting mix usually solve this issue. Alternatively, place the pot on a pebble tray half-filled with water to improve air moisture around your plant. 


Cebu Blue Pothos grows quickly and requires frequent fertilization to thrive. Therefore, from spring through autumn, give it a nitrogen-rich liquid fertilizer. 

Check the fertilizer package for dose and use directions. You may apply fertilizer once every two weeks or weekly to monthly, depending on the brand and type. 

Light encourages pothos growth. However, it goes dormant during winter, so cease feeding this plant in the colder months. Unless you’re using grow lights, but that is not too common for houseplants.


Under ideal circumstances, this plant may grow 2 feet annually. Use longer vines for propagation after spring pruning. Trimming keeps the plant bushy and controlled. 

If you apply synthetic fertilizers more than once a month, cleanse the soil in spring. It removes extra salt and minerals from the soil and maintains the roots healthy. 

Flush soil: 

  1. Sink or shower the pot. 
  2. For 5 minutes, slowly water the soil. 
  3. Leave the pot to drain for 15-20 minutes, then replace it. 


This plant has a quick growth rate, and while it doesn’t mind being rootbound, keeping it in the same pot for many years can produce fading leaves and reduced growth.  So, for best results, you’ll want to repot every couple of years.

When you observe roots through the drainage holes, transplant the plant to a larger pot, and check for drainage holes in new containers. 

In spring or summer, repot Cebu Blue. 

Propagating Cebu Blue Pothos 

Cebu Blue Pothos may be propagated through cuttings. 

First, grab some rubbing alcohol to disinfect the scissors. Some say this isn’t necessary, by why risk it.

Trim 2/3 of the longest vines, then make single-node cuttings. Put cuttings in the water and maintain them in a warm, sunny room away from direct sunshine. 

Once the roots are 2 inches long, put them into a well-draining potting mix. 

Common Problems

The Cebu Blue Pothos seldom gets pests or illnesses. But, if you satisfy its growing needs, it might stay healthy. Watch out for them. 


Mealybugs, spider mites, thrips, and scale can attack your plant. Pests cause discoloration and stunted growth on top of that, these pesty buggers could even kill your plant.

If you fear your plant is unhealthy, isolate it and check each leaf. 

Spray leaves with 70% isopropyl alcohol and water to kill spider mites, scale, and mealybugs. Repeat weekly for about a month. 

Trim thrip-infested leaves from your plant. Thrip larvae live on ill leaves; thus, removing them stops their spread. Spray a systemic insecticide after trimming the plant. 

Yellowing Leaves 

Yellowing pothos leaves are usually caused by water issues. The plant gets too much or too little water. Pests, inadequate light, and nutritional deficits may also contribute. 

Yellowing leaves are the most common pothos issue; to repair it, find the reason. 

Leaves Curling 

Curling Cebu Blue Pothos leaves indicate thirst. If the top 2 inches of soil feel dry, water it. 

Check the underside of the leaves to see whether the soil is dry. Spider mites and mealybugs may curl leaves. 

Dark-green leaves 

Cebu Blue Pothos loses its silvery-blue tint under low light or too much sun. Therefore, this plant prefers indirect light. 

Smaller leaves 

If your Cebu Blue Pothos leaves are shrinking, they may require more light, nutrients, or a larger pot. 

The leaves might become smaller even if the plant is healthy. This is common if you leave your pothos as a hanging or trailing plant for many years. Moss poles enhance leaf growth. 


Is this plant Toxic? 

Ingesting Cebu Blue Pothos leaves causes severe irritations and gastrointestinal issues. Keep cats and dogs away from this plant since it’s somewhat harmful. 

Is this a rare pothos? 

Cebu Blue Pothos is scarce in certain areas. This variety has been around for years, yet it still needs to be found. 

Online is excellent. Most plants are inexpensive; if you’re fortunate, you can get a specimen with fenestrated leaves for less than $50. 

Does it grow fast? 

Cebu Blue Pothos grows quickly, even among pothos kinds. First-month growth is slower. 

Once acclimated, it will erupt with growth. You may anticipate it to grow 2 to 3 feet every year. 

How Long for Fenestrate to show on Cebu Blue pothos? 

Blue Cebu Pothos leaves get fenestrated while the plant matures. In the natural, the plant climbs a tree. Growing pothos on a sphagnum moss pole inside triggers leaf fenestration. 

With indirect light, fertilizer, and a sphagnum moss pole, you should anticipate huge, well-defined windows in less than two years. 

Without a moss pole, your Cebu Blue will never grow and acquire fenestrated leaves. 

What’s the Difference Between Baltic Blue Pothos and Cebu Blue Pothos? 

Cebu Blue and Baltic Blue have different-colored leaves. 

Light silvery-blue Cebu Blue leaves. Baltic Blue Pothos has bluish-green leaves

Rhaphidophora Decursiva Care & Propagation Guide + 6 Common Problems 

Rhaphidophora decursiva is a rare houseplant that has been making waves among collectors since 2020. Its glossy, fenestrated leaves can add a veritable touch of exotic elegance to any home. And although it’s difficult to find, this tropical vining plant is just as easy to care for as its more common relatives, like pothos or monstera. 

In this houseplant care guide, we’ll reveal our top tips on how to help this coveted beauty thrive in your home. We’ll also discuss the best way to propagate this rare species and dispel some common misconceptions about it.

1857 Orgin & Ever-Changing Names

Rhaphidophora decursiva is a tropical plant belonging to the Araceae family. It is a climbing vine with glossy green leaves that have a smooth, leathery feel.

What’s truly fascinating about this species is how the leaves change shape as they mature. When the plant is young, the leaves are small and oval-shaped. But when the plant starts using its aerial roots to climb, it will enter its mature form, and the leaves will develop deeply-cut fenestrations that resemble the fronds of a palm tree. 

This aroid is native to the tropical forests of China, India, and Southeast Asia. Rhaphidophora decursiva in the wild a mature plant can grow to an impressive height of 66 feet (20 meters), with split leaves almost 2 feet (60 cm) long. When grown indoors, it usually reaches a height of 7 feet (2.1 meters), with large, monstera-like foliage.  

Scientists first identified this plant in 1857, and since then, they have changed its name several times. R. decursiva was once known as:

  • Monstera decursiva
  • Pothos decursiva
  • Scindapsus decursiva

Today, there still needs to be more clarity surrounding this plant. Due to its foliage and growth habit, it’s often mistaken for a monstera or philodendron species. 

Some sellers list it under the common name of Dragon Tail plant, which is also used for a species of pothos, the Epipremnum pinnatum’ dragon tail’

But whatever you decide to call it, there’s no denying that this trendy indoor plant will make a fantastic addition to your indoor jungle. 

Rhaphidophora Decursiva Care Guide

This unpretentious tropical houseplant can quickly adapt to the average indoor growing conditions. It prefers bright indirect light, well-draining soil, regular feeding, watering, and high humidity if your home can provide it. 

Most importantly, it will require support to climb on to develop mature, fenestrated leaves. So let’s take a closer look. 


Rhaphidophora decursiva needs bright indirect light to thrive. If your home is too dark, the lack of light can cause leggy growth and the leaves to get smaller. However, direct sunlight exposure can burn the plant’s leaves.

Try keeping it in an east or west-facing room, about 2 – 3 feet away from the window. In a south-facing room, you can use sheer curtains to block the intense sun and provide the plant with filtered light.  


The ideal soil mix for this plant should be rich in organic matter, well-draining, and moisture-retentive.

If the soil dries out too fast, this can result in underwatering issues and curling, yellowing leaves. However, if the soil doesn’t have sufficient drainage, it can become waterlogged and can cause problems such as root rot.

You can use a pre-made aroid potting mix or make your own at home. Here’s an excellent soil recipe you can try:

  • 50% peat moss
  • 20% perlite or pumice
  • 20% orchid bark
  • 10% horticultural charcoal.


The Rhaphidophora plant has moderate watering needs. Keep the soil moist, but avoid watering it too often. 

This plant doesn’t like having ‘wet feet,’ and the excess water can cause root rot, which may prove fatal (mushy stems are an indicator).

Water your decursiva when the top 2 inches (5 cm) of the soil feel dry to the touch. Always use the soak-and-drain watering method for this plant. 

This ensures that the soil gets evenly moist, and also helps flush out excess fertilizer salts and minerals. 


This tropical plant grows best in temperatures ranging from 65°F to 82°F (18°C to 28°C). Avoid exposing it to temperatures below 59°F (15°C), as this can stunt its growth and can lead to root damage. 

You can grow it outdoors if you live in USDA hardiness zones 10 to 12. In cooler climates, you can keep the plant outside throughout summer, then bring it inside when night-time temperatures drop too low. 


This plant can tolerate average household humidity levels. But if you want to help it thrive, try to increase the humidity levels in your home to at least 60%. The easiest way to achieve this is by using a humidifier or keeping the plant in a naturally more humid room, such as a bathroom. 

If your home has very low humidity, you may notice that the leaves will start curling or develop brown, crispy tips.  


Rhaphidophora decursiva requires regular fertilizer applications to support its fast growth. Feed it with a balanced houseplant fertilizer from early spring until mid-fall. 

A fertilizer with an N-P-K nutrient ratio of 20-20-20 works best for monthly applications. For example, if you’re using a fertilizer with a 10-10-10 ratio, you can apply it once every two weeks.  Micracle-Grow also sells liquid fertilizer that can also be an option.


The Rhaphidophora plant is a natural climber. So also, the only way to help it reach maturity and develop split, fenestrated leaves is to give it something to climb on. 

A sphagnum moss pole would be ideal, but you can also use a coco coir pole or even a simple trellis. 

Pruning & Maintenance

Prune your R. decursiva in spring or summer. Removing the dried or yellowing leaves will maintain its looks and encourage the plant to spend its energy on new growth. 

If the vines are becoming too long, you can trim them down to about half the length and use the cuttings for propagation.

Once every one or two weeks, use a damp cloth or a microfiber glove to wipe the leaves. Dust and grime can block sunlight and clog the stomata in the leaves, reducing the plant’s ability to photosynthesize. 


You will need to repot your plant once every two years. Rhaphidophora has a rapid growth rate and can quickly outgrow its container. 

If you can see the roots come out through the drainage holes, transplant it into a pot that’s two inches wider or one size bigger than its current pot. 

Rhaphidophora Decursiva Propagation Guide

The easiest method for propagating Rhaphidophora plants is rooting stem cuttings in water. This method works best if you use it in spring and summer when the plant is actively growing. 

Here’s our simple step-by-step propagation guide.

  1. Take a pair of sharp scissors and disinfect the blades with rubbing alcohol.
  2. Find a stem that’s at least one foot long, and cut it between two nodes. For best results, use single-node cuttings with one growth node and one leaf. If the cutting has two or more leaves, it will take longer to grow roots. 
  3. Fill a glass or plastic container with water, and put the cutting in it. The water level should cover the node but not the leaf.
  4. Keep the container in a warm, sunny room, away from direct sunlight.
  5. Change the water once every 5 – 7 days. This will prevent algae from growing inside the container and reduce the risk of water-borne diseases leading to stem rot.
  6. The cutting should take between 3 and 6 weeks to grow roots. Wait until the roots are at least 2 inches long (5 cm) before transplanting.
  7. When the roots are long enough, fill a nursery pot with a well-draining potting mix and transplant your cutting.
  8. Water the new plant regularly and monitor its development for the next month to ensure it has successfully transitioned from water to soil.

Alternatively, you can root cuttings in sphagnum moss, perlite, or vermiculite. 

Soil propagation is also an option, but keep in mind that the roots will develop slower. Also, the cutting is more susceptible to stem rot if you use this method. 

Can You Grow Rhaphidophora Decursiva From Seed?

You can grow a Rhaphidophora plant from seeds. However, this propagation method is rarely feasible for indoor gardeners because it requires freshly harvested seeds. 

To be successful, you must wait for your plant to flower, then manually pollinate it. After pollination, your plant will produce small, round berries. Once the berries are ripe, you can remove the seeds from the fruit and plant them as soon as possible. 

The main problem with this propagation method is that R. decursiva rarely flowers indoors. Also, the seeds last only a short time after you harvest them. And once they dry, their germination rate drops dramatically.

As tempting as it is, never buy Rhaphidophora seeds online. Most of them are too old and dry, and they will not sprout after you plant them. 

Common Problems

This low-maintenance plant rarely suffers from any serious problems. However, here are a few things to keep an eye out for.


Common Rhaphidophora decursiva pests include thrips, mealybugs, spider mites, and scale. These pests can cause leaf discoloration and stunted growth; in severe cases, they can kill your plant. 

You can use a neem oil solution to prevent severe pest infestations. 

Use an insecticidal soap solution or a mix of distilled water and isopropyl alcohol to treat scale, mealybugs, and spider mites. 

If you’re dealing with thrips, prune the damaged leaves, then spray the plant with a systemic pesticide. 

Yellow Leaves

Yellowing leaves are usually a sign of giving your plant too much or too little water. In severe cases, watering issues can lead to root rot, and leaf discoloration is the first symptom that your plant’s roots are dying.  

Other causes for yellowing leaves include low light, nutrient deficiency, low humidity, and pest infestations.  

Leaves Curling

Curling leaves are a defense mechanism used by the plant to preserve moisture. This could indicate that your plant is thirsty, that the air in your home is too dry, or that the plant is sitting too close to a heating vent.

Leggy Growth 

The main culprit is low light if your R. decursiva has a long stem with no leaves. In a dark room, the plant will spend its energy trying to find a light source, which will result in bare, leggy stems. Move your plant to a brighter location or use a grow light, especially if your home has very little natural light.  

Plant Not Growing

If your plant is not producing any new leaves or stems, it needs more light, nutrients, or a bigger pot. Keep the plant in a room with bright indirect light, fertilize it regularly during the growing season, and repot it in fresh soil at least once every two years.

Growing Smaller Leaves

The amount of light your Rhaphidophora plant receives plays an essential role in leaf shape and size. 

If the new leaves are smaller than the older ones, you need to move your plant to a brighter location. 

Also, consider giving the plant something to climb on. If kept as a hanging plant, R. decursiva will maintain its juvenile shape, and its leaves will get smaller with each passing month. 


Is this plant pet safe?

This plant is toxic to cats and dogs. All parts of the plant contain small, needle-shaped calcium oxalate crystals called raphides. They can cause painful skin irritations and, if ingested, can cause swelling of the lips and mouth, difficulty breathing, nausea, excessive drooling, and other gastrointestinal problems. 

Always keep this plant away from pets and small children. 

Is Rhaphidophora Decursiva Rare?

Rhaphidophora decursiva is relatively rare. It became a houseplant sensation in 2020; back then, it was pretty expensive. 

Since 2021, it has become cheaper and easier to find, thanks to tissue culture propagation. But only a few sellers stock it and, depending on where you live, the price for a small plant can range from $15 to more than $60.   

Is it a crawler?

No, it is a species of climbing aroid. You can grow it as a hanging or trailing plant, but to encourage large, fenestrated leaves, it’s best to grow it on a trellis or a moss pole.

Is Rhaphidophora Decursiva a Philodendron?

No. Although some sources call it the Creeping Philodendron, Rhaphidophora decursiva is neither a creeping plant nor a philodendron species. 

Instead, it belongs to the genus Rhaphidophora which, admittedly, does bear some similarities to philodendron and monstera plants regarding leaf shape and growth pattern.

This article was produced by Nature of Home.  

Most expensive climate disasters in recent decades

JOSh EDELSON/AFP // Getty Images

Most expensive climate disasters in recent decades

In 2022 so far, the U.S. has seen a staggering 15 climate and weather disasters. While the total cost of these disasters has not been fully realized yet, they’ve already caused billions of dollars worth of damage. Between 2021 and 2022, tropical cyclones, severe droughts and heatwaves, wildfires, and winter storms caused devastation and hundreds of deaths across the U.S. If the cost of 2021’s natural disasters is any indication, 2022’s total could amount to more than $100 billion in damages. Since 1980, the U.S. alone has been hit with 338 weather and climate disasters totaling at least $1 billion each.

Stacker ranked the most expensive climate disasters by the billions since 1980 by the total cost of all damages, adjusted for inflation to 2022 value, based on 2022 data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Estimates of the costs for Hurricane Ian, Fiona, and the 2022 Western Wildfire season are not yet available. The list starts with the Midwest, Plains, and Southeast drought, which caused $8.8 billion in damages in 2006, and ends with a devastating 2005 hurricane that caused $170 billion in damage and killed more than 1,800 people.

Keep reading to discover the 50 most expensive climate disasters in recent decades in the U.S.

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USDAgov // Flickr

#50. Midwest, Plains, and Southeast drought (2006)

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted to 2022 value): $8.8 billion
– Total deaths: 0
– Begin date: March 1, 2006
– End date: Aug. 31, 2006

In the late winter and into the late summer of 2006, a drought with its eye on the Great Plains region also wreaked havoc in states across the Midwest and Southeast—by July, 52% of the contiguous United States was suffering from moderate to extreme drought. The drought affected crops and water sources, as well as livestock, prompting the U.S. Department of Agriculture to proclaim drought disasters in many states.

USDAgov // Flickr

#49. Southeast drought (1983)

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $8.9 billion
– Total deaths: 0
– Begin date: June 1, 1983
– End date: Aug. 31, 1983

In the summer of 1983, many states in the Southeast experienced a rather severe flash drought. Eleven states were affected, and in Kentucky, Louisville saw its second-worst drought of the 20th century, experiencing dryness so severe that most of the state’s vegetation was forced into dormancy and many towns suffered water shortages.

Dave Gatley FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#48. Hurricane Opal

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $8.9 billion
– Total deaths: 27
– Begin date: Oct. 4, 1995
– End date: Oct. 6, 1995

In October 1995, the Southeast endured the wrath of Category 3 Hurricane Opal. The hurricane ravaged Florida, Alabama, western Georgia, eastern Tennessee, and the western Carolinas with its gusting winds and flooding. Most of the damage came from storm surges of up to 10 to 15 feet along the coastal areas of the Florida panhandle. More than 1,300 homes and 1,000 boats were destroyed or extensively damaged. Left in the hurricane’s wake was a massive $7.87 billion bill for such things as destroyed water and sewer systems, roadways, and phone and electric utilities.

Dave Gatley FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#47. Hurricane Fran

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $9.3 billion
– Total deaths: 26
– Begin date: Sept. 5, 1996
– End date: Sept. 8, 1996

In early September 1996, Hurricane Fran hit land at the tip of Cape Fear, North Carolina, and moved into Virginia with 115 mph sustained winds. Twenty-six people died in the Category 3 hurricane that left North Carolina with its costliest bill from a climate disaster—$8.16 billion—at the time. Some areas saw more than 10 inches of rain and 24-hour downpours, and Fran caused significant agricultural losses, as well.

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Mario Tama // Getty Images

#46. Western/Southern Plains drought and heatwave (2022)

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $9.3 billion
– Total deaths: 117
– Begin date: Jan. 1, 2022
– End date: Sept. 30, 2022

Scientists have linked the droughts in 2021 and 2022 back to a larger drought that began in 2000 and has persisted in some way for more than two decades. This period has been the driest since 800 A.D., and is largely caused by climate change. The summer of 2022 was also reported to be the third hottest on record in the U.S. States like California called on residents to conserve water use, but the duration of the drought has made many experience drought fatigue.

PATRICK T. FALLON/AFP via Getty Images

#45. Western drought and heatwave (2021)

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $9.4 billion
– Total deaths: 229
– Begin date: Jan. 1, 2021
– End date: Dec. 31, 2021

For much of 2021, the Southwest, California, and the Pacific Northwest were subject to extreme drought conditions, which wreaked havoc on agriculture, caused particularly bad wildfires, and created a shortage of water supplies. Despite the Western U.S. being accustomed to moderate drought conditions, the severity of the 2021 drought and heat wave was worse than usual, causing some regions to go months without any rain. Roughly 229 deaths were reported.

USDA // Wikimedia Commons

#44. US drought (2008)

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $9.7 billion
– Total deaths: 0
– Begin date: Jan. 1, 2008
– End date: Dec. 31, 2008

More than half of the country was affected by a prolonged drought that included large parts of the Southeast, West, the Great Plains, northwestern Great Lakes, and south-central Texas. The drought contributed to agricultural and livestock losses and many communities adopted water and burning restrictions. In Tennessee, the governor declared an agricultural disaster in 39 counties. North Dakota saw its driest winter in 114 years, and Minnesota saw its second driest.

NRCS Montana // Flickr

#43. South Plains severe weather

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $10.5 billion
– Total deaths: 32
– Begin date: May 5, 1995
– End date: May 7, 1995

In early May 1995, the South Plains region, including Texas, Oklahoma, southeast Louisiana, and Mississippi, saw severe weather and storms that included heavy rains, hail, and tornadoes. New Orleans was the hardest hit, experiencing 10 to 25 inches of rain over five days. All told, 32 people died and the severe weather caused billions in damage.

Dave Gatley FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#42. Hurricane Georges

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $10.7 billion
– Total deaths: 604
– Begin date: Sept. 20, 1998
– End date: Sept. 29, 1998

The second-most catastrophic hurricane in the Atlantic basin for 1998 was Category 2 Hurricane Georges, which struck Sept. 20. Georges ravaged Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, the Florida Keys, and the coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. Some areas had totals of up to 2 feet of rain over several days. In the end, 604 people died, mostly in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, and the hurricane caused more than $9 billion in damage.

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David McNew // Getty Images

#41. Western wildfires

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $11.2 billion
– Total deaths: 8
– Begin date: June 1, 2021
– End date: Dec. 31, 2021

Severe drought and heat conditions in the Western U.S. led to devastating wildfires in the region in 2021. Roughly 7.7 million acres were burned, and the particularly dry conditions made the fires extraordinarily difficult to put out. Between the destruction of property and funds needed to battle the megablazes, the 2021 wildfires were some of the costliest in U.S. history. In addition to the ecological and economic damages, smoke from the fires is thought to have mingled with the debilitating respiratory effects of COVID-19 to increase infections and deaths by the thousands.

Liz Roll FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#40. East Coast blizzard and severe weather

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $11.3 billion
– Total deaths: 270
– Begin date: March 11, 1993
– End date: March 14, 1993

On March 11, 1993, “The Storm of the Century”—the most catastrophic and expensive winter storm in the United States since 1980—hit the entire East Coast with blizzards and severe weather that left many Eastern and Northeastern states under 2 to 4 feet of snow, and enduring hurricane-like winds, flooding, or tornadoes. Power was out to more than 10 million homes as the storm covered more than 550,000 square miles and affected almost 120 million people. All told, 270 people died in 13 states and 48 people were reported missing at sea.

Dave Saville FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#39. Hurricane Floyd

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $11.3 billion
– Total deaths: 77
– Begin date: Sept. 14, 1999
– End date: Sept. 16, 1999

On Sept. 14, 1999, Category 2 Hurricane Floyd struck the East Coast, hitting North Carolina first and the hardest. Twelve other states were affected and 10 were declared major disaster areas. The large size and range of Floyd resulted in heavier and longer-lasting rains—10 to 20 inches over two days in some areas. The largest peacetime evacuation in the United States occurred as more than 2.6 million fled their homes. The total death count was 77, with 51 in North Carolina alone. More than 80,000 homes were destroyed or damaged and 500,000 households were without electricity.

Mark Wolfe FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#38. Hurricane Jeanne

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $11.5 billion
– Total deaths: 28
– Begin date: Sept. 15, 2004
– End date: Sept. 29, 2004

Florida was hit by its fourth and final hurricane for a record-breaking year on Sept. 26, 2004, when Hurricane Jeanne made landfall on Hutchinson Island. The Category 3 hurricane was the deadliest and costliest of the 2004 season. After rampaging through Florida with 115 mph winds and heavy rain, Jeanne continued up the coast, hitting nine more states. It was the 12th- deadliest Atlantic hurricane and the 15th-most expensive in U.S. history at that time.

Greg Dumas NOAA // Wikimedia Commons

#37. Midwest/Southeast tornadoes

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $11.7 billion
– Total deaths: 177
– Begin date: May 22, 2011
– End date: May 27, 2011

In May 2011, a flurry of tornadoes—an estimated 180—broke out all over the central and southern United States, resulting in 177 deaths and making that year the seventh-deadliest for tornado fatalities.

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Jonathan Shaw US National Guard // Wikimedia Commons

#36. Hurricane Matthew

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $12.1 billion
– Total deaths: 49
– Begin date: Oct. 8, 2016
– End date: Oct. 12, 2016

After skirting along Florida’s coastline, Hurricane Matthew struck land on Oct. 8, 2016, just south of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Flooding significantly affected coastal Georgia, the eastern Carolinas, and southeast Virginia. North Carolina experienced historic levels of river flooding. More than 100,000 homes and businesses were damaged. The flooding also wreaked havoc on agriculture, leading to huge losses in poultry, orchards, vegetables, and other crops. Hurricane Matthew was recorded as reaching Category 5 intensity at the lowest altitude in the Atlantic Basin ever.

Paul Meeker US National Guard // Wikimedia Commons

#35. Louisiana flooding

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $12.3 billion
– Total deaths: 13
– Begin date: Aug. 12, 2016
– End date: Aug. 15, 2016

For three days in August 2016, Louisiana was drenched in as many as 30 inches of heavy rain, causing historic flooding in a majority of its southern region. At least 20 parishes were declared disaster areas. More than 70,000 homes and businesses were destroyed or damaged, 30,000 people had to be rescued, and at least 13 died as a result of what was then the most destructive flooding since Hurricane Sandy in 2012.

Jamie Squire // Getty Images

#34. Missouri River and North Central flooding

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $12.4 billion
– Total deaths: 3
– Begin date: March 14, 2019
– End date: March 31, 2019

Rising rivers throughout the northern and central Plains in March 2019 flooded farms, towns, and cities. The flooding was caused by an aggressive storm system throughout the central U.S. that brought heavy winds, whiteout snow conditions, and downpours all the way from Colorado to North Dakota.

Daniel Acker // Getty Images

#33. Central severe weather – Derecho

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $12.5 billion
– Total deaths: 4
– Begin date: Aug. 10, 2020
– End date: Aug. 10, 2020

A derecho—a line of powerful, quick windstorms sometimes joined by thunderstorms traversing a large expanse of land—pushed its way over the Midwest in the summer of 2020, causing damage in Illinois, Indiana, Nebraska, and Wisconsin. The winds were powerful enough to create tornadoes. Power outages and property damage affected millions of people.

Al Jazeera English // Wikimedia Commons

#32. Western/Plains drought and heat wave (2013)

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $13.2 billion
– Total deaths: 53
– Begin date: March 1, 2013
– End date: Nov. 30, 2013

2013 was a dry year for every state west of the Mississippi River as each experienced some level of drought and heat wave conditions. The drought began in the Midwest and Plains states and spread to Western states in March. By September, more than 50% of the contiguous United States was in a state of drought. California experienced its driest year on record as 97% of the state suffered from drought.

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Thilo Parg // Wikimedia Commons

#31. Southeast/Ohio Valley/Midwest tornadoes

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $13.3 billion
– Total deaths: 321
– Begin date: April 25, 2011
– End date: April 28, 2011

Over the course of three days, 343 tornadoes spawned in at least 13 states—with a particular proclivity for metropolitan areas—in the Central and Southern United States in what was one of the deadliest, most destructive outbreaks in history. Alabama was hit the hardest as an EF-5 tornado struck in the northern region, affecting Tuscaloosa and Birmingham and killing at least 78 people and injuring thousands more. In the wake of hundreds of other tornadoes and three EF-5 level strikes, thousands of homes and businesses were destroyed or significantly damaged.

Andrea Booher FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#30. Midwest flooding (2008)

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $13.7 billion
– Total deaths: 24
– Begin date: April 1, 2008
– End date: June 30, 2008

The Midwest was subjected to continued heavy rain as storm system after storm system rolled through in 2008. Billions of dollars in agricultural loss and property damage were the result of mass flooding in Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Montana, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Wisconsin. Historic water levels were reported all over the Midwest with some exceeding 500-year levels.

Andrea Booher FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#29. Tropical Storm Allison

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $14.0 billion
– Total deaths: 43
– Begin date: June 5, 2001
– End date: June 17, 2001

On June 5, 2001, the deadliest and costliest tropical or subtropical storm at that time struck, bringing heavy rains to Texas and Louisiana, which each saw rainfall between 30 and 40 inches. Severe flooding followed, and Allison headed northeast to Mississippi, Florida, Virginia, and Pennsylvania. Each state suffered loss of life and property; in all, at least 45,000 homes were damaged or destroyed, thousands of public facilities and businesses were damaged, and 43 people were killed.


#28. US drought (2002)

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $14.9 billion
– Total deaths: 0
– Begin date: March 1, 2002
– End date: Nov. 30, 2002

2002 was another dry year with at least 39% of the contiguous United States experiencing severe to extreme drought in July. The longstanding drought decreased to 22% of the contiguous United States by the end of December because storms brought heavy rains. The affected regions had some of the lowest precipitation levels in history, affecting water sources, and destroying crops and pastureland. Colorado, Arizona, and Oregon endured large wildfires that year, as well.

Jocelyn Augustino FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#27. Hurricane Frances

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $15.1 billion
– Total deaths: 48
– Begin date: Sept. 3, 2004
– End date: Sept. 9, 2004

Making landfall on Sept. 5 on the Florida peninsula near Sewall’s Point, Category 2 Hurricane Frances started its course of destruction along the Southeast with its 105 mph winds and heavy rains that caused mass flooding and spawned more than 117 tornadoes. Florida’s citrus crop was devastated, and more than 1.8 million residents lost electricity. Georgia, the Carolinas, and New York also sustained significant damage from flooding caused by 6 to 20 inches of rain.

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Al Jazeera English // Wikimedia Commons

#26. Southern Plains/Southwest drought and heat wave

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $15.9 billion
– Total deaths: 95
– Begin date: March 1, 2011
– End date: Aug. 31, 2011

From March to the end of August 2011, severe drought and heat waves impacted much of the Southern Plains and Southwest United States. Range and pasture lands were in poor condition for much of the 2011 growing season and the drought took its toll on Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona, Kansas, and Louisiana. At least 95 people died.

Ann Froschauer USFWS // Wikimedia Commons

#25. Hurricane Irene

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $17.4 billion
– Total deaths: 45
– Begin date: Aug. 26, 2011
– End date: Aug. 28, 2011

Hurricane Irene hit land in North Carolina before moving up the East Coast, affecting eight other states, perhaps none more so than Vermont. The true beast of the Category 1 hurricane was its torrential rainfall, which caused mass flooding. Vermont saw more than 11 inches of rain and more than $733 million in damage. More than 7 million people lost power and 45 were killed, and Irene also spawned numerous tornadoes. In New York, which also sustained massive rains, thousands of flights were canceled and major transportation services were shut down.

JOSH EDELSON/AFP // Getty Images

#24. Western wildfires – California, Oregon, Washington firestorms (2020)

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $18.4 billion
– Total deaths: 46
– Begin date: Aug. 1, 2020
– End date: Dec. 30, 2020

2020’s western U.S. wildfire season was one for the history books that capped off an already turbulent year for people all over the world. The blazes were touched off by a series of August thunderstorms in California, Oregon, and Washington and expanded by powerful winds across dry landscapes and forests.

Gary Williams // Getty Images

#23. Hurricane Hugo

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $21.1 billion
– Total deaths: 86
– Begin date: Sept. 21, 1989
– End date: Sept. 22, 1989

In September 1989, Category 4 Hurricane Hugo left the Carolinas with astronomical damage caused by its 140 mph winds and storm surges. The event also mesmerized the country as the drama of Hugo—the most destructive hurricane at that time—unfolded. In Bull’s Bay just north of Charleston, South Carolina, a nearly 20-foot storm surge devoured the town. In the Carolinas alone, Hugo destroyed or damaged more than 100,000 homes and killed at least 19 people.

Kilmer Media // Shutterstock

#22. Western wildfires, California firestorm (2017)

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $21.4 billion
– Total deaths: 54
– Begin date: June 1, 2017
– End date: Dec. 31, 2017

Over the summer of 2017, many parts of the western United States and California experienced historic firestorms causing more than $18 billion in damage—the costliest wildfire series in history. About 9,000 massive wildfires ripped through Northern California in October, burning over 1.2 million acres, destroying more than 15,000 homes and businesses, and killing 44. More wildfires broke out across other western states, roasting 9.8 million acres in their paths. The resulting smoke was so extreme over Labor Day weekend that its cloud traveled all the way to Paris.

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Andrea Booher FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#21. Hurricane Charley

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $24.6 billion
– Total deaths: 35
– Begin date: Aug. 13, 2004
– End date: Aug. 14, 2004

In the middle of August 2004, Category 4 Hurricane Charley hit land near the Punta Gorda area in southwest Florida. The 145 mph winds and storm surges resulted in major damage to coastal areas—thousands of homes and businesses were destroyed, 2 million were left without electricity, and 25 of Florida’s 67 counties were declared as federal disaster areas. Charley continued northeast up the coast, devastating Florida’s citrus crop and bringing heavy rains and gusting winds into the Carolinas and Virginia.

Scott Olson // Getty Images

#20. Northwest, Central, Eastern winter storm and cold wave

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $25.2 billion
– Total deaths: 262
– Begin date: Feb. 10, 2021
– End date: Feb. 19, 2021

The Feb. 2021 cold snap hit a large swath of North America, but was particularly catastrophic in Texas, where roughly 210 people died during the freeze. As many as 4 million Lone Star State residents were also left without power—and therefore, heat—due to widespread power grid failures, which is thought to be at least partially responsible for many of the deaths. Costly damage was also sustained by infrastructure. Extreme cold was also felt across much of the country: in Minnesota, one weather station reported a reading of 50 degrees Fahrenheit below zero.


#19. Hurricane Laura

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $26.0 billion
– Total deaths: 42
– Begin date: Aug. 27, 2020
– End date: Aug. 28, 2020

Hurricane Laura is tied with the 1856 Last Island hurricane and Hurricane Ida as the most powerful on record to make landfall in Louisiana. It was the 12th named storm of the record-setting 2020 Atlantic hurricane season. It made landfall with 150 mph sustained winds and damaged innumerable buildings, homes, and wildlife areas.

Leif Skoogfors FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#18. Hurricane Rita

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $27.2 billion
– Total deaths: 119
– Begin date: Sept. 20, 2005
– End date: Sept. 24, 2005

Hurricane Rita hugely impacted the Texas-Louisiana border coastal region, as well as the Florida Panhandle, Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas. The Category 3 hurricane brought strong storm surges of up to 15 feet, wind damage, and inland flooding, and spawned at least 92 tornadoes. At least 119 people were killed, but most of the deaths came as 3.7 million Texans attempted to evacuate, causing a huge traffic jam—some stranded for an entire day.

JOSH EDELSON/AFP // Getty Images

#17. Western wildfires, California firestorm (2018)

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $27.8 billion
– Total deaths: 106
– Begin date: June 1, 2018
– End date: Dec. 31, 2018

2018’s wildfire season stands as the deadliest, most destructive in California’s recorded history. More than 8,500 fires were recorded over the course of the year, eating nearly 1.9 million acres of land. A major contributor to the severity of the fires was an increased volume of dead tree fuel.

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Sean Rayford // Getty Images

#16. Hurricane Florence

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $27.8 billion
– Total deaths: 53
– Begin date: Sept. 13, 2018
– End date: Sept. 16, 2018

Though Hurricane Florence made landfall as a Category 1 storm, it was slow-moving and large and caused intense wind and rain damage to the Carolinas. Florence brought forth 100 mph winds, storm surges as high as 9 to 13 feet, and 20 to 35 inches of rain. The amount of rainfall was the biggest factor for why Florence was so devastating and deadly—51 fatalities resulted—as flood-height records were surpassed.

Jocelyn Augustino FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#15. Hurricane Wilma

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $27.9 billion
– Total deaths: 35
– Begin date: Oct. 24, 2005
– End date: Oct. 24, 2005

Category 3 Hurricane Wilma collided with southwest Florida touching down near Everglades City. Wilma—with its maximum sustained 120 mph winds and heavy rains—resulted in heavy flooding as it hurried across the state, touching on the Miami/Fort Lauderdale region and exiting to the coast again the same day. At least 10 people were killed and 6 million lost power—the most in Florida history. Wilma was recorded as a Category 5 at the lowest pressure ever in the Atlantic Basin while still offshore and as the most rapidly intensifying with a 105 mph increase in wind speed in just a day.


#14. Hurricane Michael

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $29.0 billion
– Total deaths: 49
– Begin date: Oct. 10, 2018
– End date: Oct. 11, 2018

Hurricane Michael was the first Category 5 hurricane to hit the U.S. since 1992’s Hurricane Andrew. The storm made landfall around Mexico Beach, Florida, gradually moving inland and losing strength as it moved northeast to Georgia and southern Virginia.

Jocelyn Augustino FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#13. Hurricane Ivan

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $31.6 billion
– Total deaths: 57
– Begin date: Sept. 12, 2004
– End date: Sept. 21, 2004

Category 3 Hurricane Ivan came ashore on the Gulf Coast of Alabama on Sept. 16, bringing 130 mph winds, heavy rains, storm surges, and extreme flooding that affected 17 states. Ivan also spawned more than 100 tornadoes and waves that reached as high as 50 feet along the coasts of Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida Panhandle. Hurricane Ivan caused almost $28 billion in damage, and at least 57 people were killed. As a result of Hurricane Ivan and three other hurricanes in 2004, more than one out of every five houses in Florida sustained some kind of damage.

USDAgov // Flickr

#12. Central/Eastern drought and heat wave (1980)

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $37.7 billion
– Total deaths: 1,260
– Begin date: June 1, 1980
– End date: Nov. 30, 1980

The 1980 U.S. drought and heat wave covered a 42-day streak of 100-plus-degree days, making it the longest-lasting in the Central-Eastern region’s history. The drought of 1980 tied or met 29 daily high temperature records and hit many other records. It also caused significant damage to agriculture, and led to at least 1,200 deaths. Another remarkable thing about the 1980 drought was the media coverage, which became obsessive. As the U.S. media ran out of coverage ideas while the drought and heat wave dragged on for months, media crews from all over the world stepped into the scene.

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John Moore // Getty Images

#11. US drought and heat wave (2012)

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $38.7 billion
– Total deaths: 123
– Begin date: Jan. 1, 2012
– End date: Dec. 31, 2012

Since the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, the U.S. drought and heatwaves in 2012 were the most impactful and destructive. About 56% of the contiguous United States was affected by moderate to extreme drought. Many parts of the country saw huge agricultural losses, and the drought caused 123 direct deaths.

James L. Harper Jr. U.S. Air Force // Wikimedia Commons

#10. Hurricane Ike

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $40.2 billion
– Total deaths: 112
– Begin date: Sept. 12, 2008
– End date: Sept. 14, 2008

Category 2 Hurricane Ike—the most intense of 2008—struck the Texas coastline on Sept. 13. Ike’s tropical storm winds exceeded Hurricane Katrina’s, and its massive size likened it to a Category 5 storm with 15-foot waves pummeling the Gulf Coast from Texas to Florida and spawning 29 tornadoes. Ike affected 11 states resulting in 103 direct fatalities; a month after the storm passed, 157 people were still missing.

Andrea Booher FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#9. Midwest flooding (1993)

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $43.0 billion
– Total deaths: 48
– Begin date: June 27, 1993
– End date: Aug. 15, 1993

In the summer of 1993, the Midwest and the central United States went through the most devastating and costly non-tropical, inland flooding on record. More than 17 million acres across nine states were drowned in water. Hundreds of levees broke along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, killing 48 people and destroying more than 50,000 homes. The flooding had significant impacts on agriculture and infrastructure but also halted all railroad traffic across the Midwest. In addition, 10 commercial airports flooded, and some places along the Mississippi River remained flooded for months.

USDAgov // Flickr

#8. US drought and heat wave (1988)

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $50.6 billion
– Total deaths: 454
– Begin date: June 1, 1988
– End date: Aug. 31, 1988

One of the worst droughts since the 1930s Dust Bowl occurred in the summer of 1988 when at least 45% of the contiguous United States suffered sweltering temperatures and lack of rain. The drought lasted from June until the end of August and resulted in 454 direct deaths and upwards of 5,000 indirect fatalities, as well as significant losses in agriculture and related industries. The Mississippi River barely trickled, and temperatures rocketed up to 110 degrees in some areas.

Bob Epstein FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#7. Hurricane Andrew

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $55.9 billion
– Total deaths: 61
– Begin date: Aug. 23, 1992
– End date: Aug. 27, 1992

Category 5 Hurricane Andrew slammed Florida in August 1992 with 175 mph winds that damaged or destroyed more than 125,000 homes, stripping many down to their concrete foundations. Some 160,000 people were displaced in Miami-Dade County alone. Hurricane Andrew is one of only four Category 5 hurricanes to affect the U.S. mainland and resulted in the deaths of 61 people. It also destroyed Homestead Air Force Base. The positives to come out of the disaster were overhauls of state building codes, the insurance industry, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

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Mark Wolfe FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#6. Hurricane Irma

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $59.5 billion
– Total deaths: 97
– Begin date: Sept. 6, 2017
– End date: Sept. 12, 2017

Category 4 Hurricane Irma hit the Florida Keys destroying or damaging more than 80% of its buildings. As Irma moved along the coast, the 185 mph winds, tornadoes, and storm surges hit nine states. Florida and South Carolina were the most affected. Jacksonville and Charleston had historic levels of storm surge, which caused severe coastal flooding that left millions without electricity. Irma was both the strongest Atlantic basin hurricane documented outside of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea and the longest-lasting, with sustained 185 mph winds over 37 hours.

Tayfun Coskun/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images

#5. Hurricane Ida

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $78.7 billion
– Total deaths: 96
– Begin date: Aug. 29, 2021
– End date: Sept. 1, 2021

Damage from Hurricane Ida spanned from New Orleans all the way to New York. Originally making landfall in the Gulf of Mexico, the greatest impact from the storm was felt in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. In New Orleans, the entire city was left without power and sustained severe damage, though it was saved from even worse flooding by levees fortified after Hurricane Katrina. The Northeast, including New York City, also sustained immense damage and deaths.

DVIDSHUB // Wikimedia Commons

#4. Hurricane Sandy

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $82.0 billion
– Total deaths: 159
– Begin date: Oct. 30, 2012
– End date: Oct. 31, 2012

Hurricane Sandy—“Superstorm Sandy”—struck at the end of October 2012, directly affecting 24 states and all of the U.S. Eastern seaboard, wreaking havoc from flash flooding and storm surges to blizzard-like conditions. Sandy resulted in 159 deaths and is the fourth-costliest storm in U.S. history. The New York Stock Exchange was forced to close for two consecutive business days for the first time since 1888, and a 14-foot surge caused Manhattan’s subway system to sustain its worst damage in 108 years because tunnels were flooded. More than 8.5 million people lost power, and more than 20,000 flights were canceled.

Yuisa Rios FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#3. Hurricane Maria

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $107.1 billion
– Total deaths: 2,981
– Begin date: Sept. 19, 2017
– End date: Sept. 21, 2017

In September 2017, Category 4 Hurricane Maria affected many parts of the United States, but the impact was felt the most in Puerto Rico. After claiming the lives of at least 2,981 people and resulting in more than $90 billion in damage, Hurricane Maria became one of the deadliest and costliest climate disasters in U.S. history. The mass flooding and mudslides in Puerto Rico devastated the country’s economy, infrastructure, and living conditions. The hurricane also was one of most rapidly intensifying storms, going from a tropical depression to a Category 5 Hurricane in less than 54 hours.

Daniel Martinez Texas National Guard // Wikimedia Commons

#2. Hurricane Harvey

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $148.8 billion
– Total deaths: 89
– Begin date: Aug. 25, 2017
– End date: Aug. 31, 2017

At the end of August 2017, Category 4 Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Rockport, Texas, spawning more than 30 tornadoes and heavy winds, and dumping 30 to 50 inches of rain on 13 million people in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Kentucky. In Houston—the nation’s fourth-largest city—at least 3,900 people still had no power almost three weeks after the storm, and national gas prices rose as 25% of oil and gas production was shut down in the region. At one point, 75% of Harris County, which encompasses Houston, was under 1.5 feet of water. Massive flooding displaced over 30,000 people and damaged or destroyed over 200,000 homes and businesses.

Jocelyn Augustino FEMA // Wikimedia Commons

#1. Hurricane Katrina

– Total cost (inflation-adjusted): $186.3 billion
– Total deaths: 1,833
– Begin date: Aug. 25, 2005
– End date: Aug. 30, 2005

On Aug. 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina—the costliest and one of the deadliest disasters in U.S. history—made landfall near Grand Isle, Louisiana, as a Category 3 storm with 127 mph winds and severe storm surges, some in excess of 30 feet. Katrina affected 90,000 square miles and at least eight states, with most of the damage occurring in Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana—particularly New Orleans. At least 50 levees failed in New Orleans resulting in devastating mass flooding. By the end, 1,833 people had been killed, including 1,577 in Louisiana, and more than 1 million people had been displaced. Two of the region’s biggest industries—oil and gas—suffered greatly, and tourism to the coastal communities died as infrastructure continued to erode. From April 2000 to July 2006, New Orleans’ population decreased by more than half.

Written by: Katelyn Leboff. Article was published by Stacker.

4 Best Bedroom Plants: Purify Air, Improve Sleep & Add Decor

Since we spend a third of our lives in bed, our bedrooms must be as attractive and comfortable as possible. We’ll explain how bedroom plants can assist us in achieving this. 

Surprisingly, a single plant can significantly improve the air quality in your bedroom. Additionally, you’ll find plants that reduce noise and others that have surprising and enjoyable reactions to light. 

It’s lovely to connect with nature’s calming and restorative effects from bed by gazing at a beautiful assortment of plants. 

Plants: A Natural Sleep Aid 

Plants act as the world’s natural sound machines to reduce noise pollution by diffracting, reflecting, and absorbing sound. Like carpeting, houseplants can absorb a lot of sounds. Here are some suggestions for using bedroom plants to help you sleep well. 

The Power of Grouping Plants

Plants reduce noise the best when clustered together. Place your collection in a corner for maximum sound absorption from both directions. 

Use Floor Plants To Muffle More Sound

Choose a floor plant if the space allows. Such as a Limelight dracaena’s foliage that will help muffle sound, as will the soil and the size of its large pot. The croton’s large, extra-absorbent leaves can also make it a floor plant, even though it is not one. 

Layers, Please 

showing best plant for bedroom decor.

You can use a mistletoe fig that “creeps” across the floor with croton and dracaena on the sides. You could also place a goldfish plant and a tiny Tillandsia ionanlha air plant on a table. 

You could even suspend ceiling plants to block out unwanted sounds. Low-maintenance pothos plants such as the Baltic Blue work excellently for this. 

Note: pothos needs indirect sunlight, so if you have a south-facing window, it could be too much direct light for pothos.

Plant’s Are Nature’s Air Purifiers

Although we know plants absorb carbon dioxide and expel oxygen, they accomplish a lot more than that. 

The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by and found in carpeting, cleaning products, and paint can be completely removed by plants from our air. 

One of the most thorough studies of its kind, funded by NASA in 1989, sought to identify the best plants for air filtration. A few leading candidates for the best bedroom plants that purify air are listed below. 

4 Best Bedroom Plants That Remove Air Pollutants 

1.) English Ivy

english ivy plant in bedroom.

English ivy (Hedera helix) is an amicable bedfellow that tolerates dim bedrooms relatively well. Numerous varieties are available, including the miniature “Jubilee,” which can climb up objects to form a living curtain or tumble down bedside tables. There is evidence that they help lower indoor mold and allergen levels. 

2.) Snake Plant 

snake plant in bedroom

The snake plant, also known as Mother-in-law’s-tongue, is distinguished by its sword-like leaves, which also serve as an eye-catching architectural feature. Although, it is said in feng shui that sword-like leaves can bring bad energy. So, use it with caution if you believe in feng shui.

In addition, the snake plant produces oxygen and removes toxins throughout the night, unlike other plants that release carbon dioxide at that time. 

3.) Gerbera Daisies 

gerbera daisy in bedroom windowsill.

Gerbera daisies (Gerbera x hybrid), which are sunflower family members, have sturdy stems, strong leaves, and a wide range of colors. Getting rid of chemical vapors inside gerberas has proven very effective. 

Keep these indoor plants in a cool area with some morning sun for several weeks of blossoming. For best-growing results, keep the soil moist.

4.) Chrysanthemum (Mums)

bedroom with mum flowers

Chrysanthemum spp., also known as mums, are an excellent option for bringing a pop of color into the bedroom, even though they are only short bloomers. However, don’t be deceived by their gentle exterior; these blooming beauties are also a top choice for cleaning the air while you sleep.

Flowers can last up to six weeks and should be kept in a cool, bright area with consistently moist soil. 

Plants You Can Use on a Dresser 

indoor plants on dresser

Create an expression of your sense of style on your dresser. But, pick low-maintenance plants to add ambiance to your space without adding to your busy schedule. 

Go Bohemian 

You can soften bold features and add a relaxed atmosphere by incorporating a large mirror, a vine, or other climbing greenery. You can use clear 3M hooks to affix grape ivy to the mirror’s frame (which is discreet and removable). 

Contemporary Looks

Without being overpowering, subtle patterns and monochromatic colors add layers of interest. To attract attention, combine an unusual plant like the “Ming Thing” cactus with a chic metallic vase resembling a mirror’s design. 

Merge Two Plants For More Effect

Create a sophisticated setting ideal for pampering and indulging by combining softly textural plants—like the delicate beading of the string of pearls and the voluminous tousles of N ‘Joy’ pothos—with statement-making metallic accents. 

Natural Elegance

Think Joshua Tree meets Scandinavia. Try using a monotone plant and accessories, thus, creating contrasting textures, which is essential to generate interest. 

Examples include a woven basket next to a painted ceramic planter and the soft, furry leaves of the panda plant “Chocolate Soldier.”

Plants Enjoy Sleep as Well

Some plants go to sleep at night, believe it or not. Darkness causes this slumbering response, known as nyctinasty. The leaves nod off for the night once the light levels fall. 

The plant will “stir” from its sleeping slate as the sun rises, spreading its leaves to gather energy. 

In addition to closing at night, the touch-me-not plant also responds to even light touch (a response called seismonasty, a defense against predators). 

Keep oxalis and the prayer plant close to your bed, and you and the earth’s rotation will be able to experience its rhythm together.

Bedroom Decor Tip

neon pothos in bathroom

Although it’s common to consider the green of foliage a “neutral” tone, keep in mind that it can also be used to add a splash of color to your space. For more, check out these 20 pothos decoration ideas.

This article was produced by Nature of Home.

5 Must-Have Cauliflower Companion Plants For Best Harvest

Today, cauliflower is becoming more trendy, and it’s common to see it used in pizza crust, rice, bread, and crackers. It’s an excellent cool-season vegetable crop that’s adaptable to both partial shade and full sun. Cauliflower also comes in colors other than white and can be used for adding color to your garden and plate.

We’ll cover the best cauliflower companion plants, explain how they attract beneficial insects, and work together.

5 Best Companion Plants for Cauliflower

  1. Beets
  2. Lettuce
  3. Fennel
  4. Nasturtiums
  5. Cosmos

An explanation of why these plants grow well with cauliflower is below.

Beets & Lettuce

Cauliflower grows slowly and takes up a lot of garden space; most growth is more than 6 to 8 inches off the ground. You can underplant fast-growing crops like radishes, beets, and leaf lettuce in that space. 

In the spring, companion planting cauliflower can help control the two main pests that affect all brassicas: aphids and cabbage worms. 


Hoverfly larvae are beneficial insects and will eat aphids when planted with cosmos and are used as a good companion for cauliflower. 


To assist cosmos, plant nasturtiums as a trap crop near cauliflower; aphids will be attracted to the nasturtiums even more than your cauliflower. 


In addition, planting fennel around your cauliflower will draw parasitic wasps, which will lay their eggs under the caterpillars’ skin and then plant their larvae on the worms from the inside out. 

3 Bad Companion Plants For Cauliflower

Avoid planting these three bad cauliflower companion plants:

1.) Tomatoes

Cauliflower will face competition with tomatoes because they’re both heavy feeders for vital nutrients in the soil. Being that they compete, cauliflower could stunt the growth of tomatoes. 

2.) Strawberries 

This is a bad companion plant for cauliflower because strawberries compete for nutrients like tomatoes and cauliflower. 

3.) Brassicas

 Brassicas, such as broccoli, cabbage, and brussels sprouts, should not be planted next to cauliflower. Both brassica and cauliflower belong to the same family. So, together they would attract more pests and diseases to your vegetable garden, and compete with one another. 

Now that you know the best and worst cauliflower companion plants, here are some growing and harvesting tips.

Getting Started & Planting Cauliflower

planting cauliflower in the garden.

Cauliflower can be planted in the late summer or early fall and allowed to grow throughout the winter if your winters only experience light frosts. However, you should plant your cauliflower in the spring if you have freezing temperatures and winter snow. 

It’s generally best to start indoors from seed or transplants, regardless of the weather. However, since cauliflower will only plant in soil that is less than 70°F (21°C) in temperature, growing it from seed in the late summer or early fall is probably too hot. 

Since cauliflower and broccoli can occupy a garden for four to five months, they can eat up space for your warm-season crops, so you’ll want to start planning your spring sowing early. 

You can start cauliflower seeds indoors six weeks before your last frost date. As soon as your seedlings or transplants are prepared to be placed in the garden (can be planted two weeks before your last frost date), ensure they receive at least four to five hours of direct sun, but the more, the better. 

In rich, well-draining soil, space them 15 to 18 inches apart and keep them moist. 

Growing Cauliflower & Harvesting

growing cauliflower plant

Although cauliflower leaves can be eaten, most people grow them for the substantial central stalk and head. 

The plant’s top center is where the head develops; although it starts small, it will eventually get much more prominent. It would be best to cover the cauliflower heads once the leaves begin to part and the sun shines directly on them because direct sunlight can cause them to turn discolored. 

To do this, gather some leaves close to the head and rubber band or clothespin them together. This will protect the head from the sun. 

A cauliflower head is ready to harvest when it is still tight and 6 to 8 inches (15 to 20 cm) in diameter. Then, when the stalk begins to branch into the various segments, take a knife or pair of clippers and cut it off. 

Cauliflower plants stop producing once the central head has been harvested, unlike broccoli plants, which continue to produce a secondary crop of side florets. 

This article was produced by Nature of Home.

Defining Ecotourism and 10 Destinations to Discover

There are many reasons to engage in ecotourism, from preserving the environment to supporting the local economy. By visiting destinations that focus on conservation and sustainable tourism, you can have a positive impact while enjoying some amazing natural landscapes. Here’s what you need to know about ecotourism and ten must-see destinations for eco-enthusiasts.

What is Ecotourism?

Ecotourism is a type of travel that focuses on experiencing nature and natural systems. In addition to enjoying the sights and sounds of nature, ecotourism seeks to minimize any negative impacts associated with traveling to these places. For example, ecotourism encourages visitors to avoid using products that are harmful to the environment, such as plastic water bottles or disposable cleaning wipes. 

By prioritizing sustainability and minimizing its environmental impact, people practicing ecotourism are helping protect our planet for future generations. Whether you visit an exotic rainforest or a local wildlife refuge, it is more important than ever to consider how your actions can impact Mother Earth. So if you are looking for a new way to explore nature and care for the earth simultaneously, consider ecotourism!

Benefits of Ecotourism

Ecotourism can have many benefits for the environment and the local community. One of the main benefits of ecotourism is that it can help to raise awareness about environmental issues. By providing educational opportunities for tourists, ecotourism can help to educate people about the importance of conserving natural resources. 

In addition, ecotourism can also boost the local community economically. By bringing in tourists, ecotourism can create jobs and generate income for the local economy. Ecotourism can also help to support conservation efforts by providing funds for research and the protection of natural areas. Overall, ecotourism has many potential benefits and can play an essential role in promoting sustainable development.

How You Can Participate in Ecotourism

Examples of ecotourism include exploring a rainforest to observing wildlife in its natural habitat. Various ecotourism activities can be enjoyed while vacationing in an environmentally sensitive area. Hiking and bird watching are two popular options that allow you to appreciate the beauty of nature without causing harm. 

For those looking for a more active experience, there are also kayaking, canoeing, and rafting opportunities. These activities allow people to explore waterways and get close to wildlife in their natural habitat. In addition, many ecotourism operators offer educational tours that provide information about the local ecosystem and the importance of conservation. Vacationers can help protect the environment by participating in ecotourism activities at any destination.

10 Ecotourism Destinations to Discover

1. Costa Rica

costa rice eco-tourism

Costa Rica ecotourism has become popular recently as more people seek opportunities to experience the country’s stunning natural beauty. Situated between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, Costa Rica is home to an amazing variety of plant and animal life, making it a perfect destination for nature lovers. 

In addition, the country’s commitment to environmental conservation means that you can enjoy the scenery without worrying about the impact on the environment. There are many different ways to experience Costa Rica’s ecotourism, from guided hikes through the rainforest to kayaking down rivers surrounded by jungle. 

2. Galapagos Islands

galapagos islands

As one of the world’s most biodiverse regions, the Galapagos Islands are a mecca for ecotourism. Thanks to strict regulations, the islands have been able to remain largely unspoiled, providing you with an up-close look at some of the planet’s rarest and most exciting species. 

From marine iguanas to giant tortoises, there is an abundance of wildlife to be found on the Galapagos. In addition, the islands offer stunning scenery, from volcanic landscapes to sandy beaches. With its unique combination of natural wonders and wildlife, it’s no wonder the Galapagos Islands is a popular ecotourism destination.

3. Palau


Palau is an archipelago of over five hundred islands in the Western Pacific Ocean. Palau’s economy largely depends on tourism, and the government has committed to sustainable tourism practices. The country has an abundant diversity of plants and animals, including many endangered species. You can enjoy snorkeling, diving in crystal-clear waters, hiking through the jungle, and seeing rare animals in their natural habitat. 

4. Kenya

kenya safari

Kenya is renowned for its incredible wildlife and stunning landscapes. From the Great Rift Valley to the Massai Mara, Kenya offers visitors a truly unique experience. Kenya is home to numerous national parks and reserves, which provide perfect opportunities for eco-friendly activities such as hiking, bird watching, and safaris. Supporting ecotourism in Kenya can help preserve the country’s amazing biodiversity while contributing to the local economy. 

5. Chi Phat – Cambodia

cardamom mountains in cambodia

Chi Phat is a small village located in the Cardamom Mountains of Cambodia. The village has become known for its unique ecotourism opportunities in recent years. You to Chi Phat can choose to stay in a traditional stilt house, go on jungle hikes, and learn about the local wildlife from experienced guides. 

The village is also home to various businesses that cater to tourists, including restaurants, souvenir shops, and – most notably – a school that teaches you how to cook traditional Khmer dishes. Overall, Chi Phat is an excellent destination for those looking to learn more about Cambodian culture and experience some of the country’s beautiful natural scenery.

6. Patagonia

patagonia mount fritz roy

Nestled at the southern tip of South America, Patagonia is a region of spectacular beauty, home to glaciers, mountains, forests, and rivers. It’s also one of the world’s last significant wilderness areas and an increasingly popular destination for eco-tourists. Patagonia’s unique ecology is mainly due to its location at the meeting point of three different ecosystems – the Andes Mountains, the Chilean coastline, and the steppes of Argentina. This has created a biodiverse region teeming with wildlife, including guanacos, pumas, rheas, and penguins. 

7. Bhutan

bhutan village

Bhutan is a small country in the Himalayas that is landlocked. Bhutan is home to one of the most biodiverse ecosystems in the world, and its government is committed to preserving this diversity. As a result, Bhutan has some of the strictest environmental laws. This commitment to conservation has made Bhutan an ideal destination for nature lovers and adventure seekers. You can hike through pristine forests, encounter rare wildlife, and explore centuries-old Buddhist temples. In addition, Bhutanese culture is renowned for its focus on happiness and well-being. 

8. Bonaire


Bonaire is a small island in the Caribbean Sea known for its beautiful beaches and stunning coral reefs. The island has a rich history and culture, and its people are warm and welcoming. Bonaire has implemented a number of measures to ensure the sustainability of its ecotourism. You can enjoy an array of activities that help to protect the environment. For example, many tour operators offer snorkeling and diving tours emphasizing eco-friendly practices, such as avoiding touching corals or feeding fish. In addition, many hotels on the island offer guests the opportunity to participate in beach cleanups or other conservation efforts. 

9. Panama


Panama is world-renowned for its lush rainforests, pristine beaches, and abundant wildlife. These natural attractions make Panama an ideal destination for ecotourism. Panama offers many opportunities to enjoy its diverse ecosystem, whether exploring the jungle by hiking or canoeing, going on a wildlife safari or scuba diving in clear Caribbeanwaters. 

In addition to its natural wonders, Panama also boasts a vibrant array of cultures, with strong influences from Indigenous peoples and Afro-Caribbean traditions. As ecotourism continues to grow, Panama is well-positioned to become one of the world’s premier destinations for sustainable travel.

10. Estonia

Estonia national park

Estonia has a rich history and diverse culture, located on the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. There are many reasons why Estonia is an ideal place for an eco-friendly vacation. The country has many national parks and protected areas, including several UNESCO World Heritage sites. This means plenty of opportunities to enjoy the outdoors and experience Estonian nature at its best. Furthermore, Estonia has a well-developed infrastructure for sustainable tourism, with numerous eco-lodges and tour operators offering green travel options

Support Ecotourism 

Ecotourism has many benefits for both you and the places you visit. By its very nature, ecotourism is low impact, which helps preserve natural areas. In addition, ecotourism can provide much-needed income for local communities that may otherwise be reliant on damaging activities such as clear-cut logging or mining. Finally, ecotourism can raise awareness about the importance of conservation and responsible travel. From jungle lodges in Costa Rica to safari camps in Kenya, an ecotourism vacation is a perfect way to see the world responsibly.

Author: Alexandrea Sumuel. The article was produced by Biologic Performance and syndicated by healing-water.org.

Manjula Pothos Plant Care Guide + 4 Common Problems to Avoid

Manjula pothos, also known as Happy Leaf pothos or Jewel pothos, is a tropical houseplant with dark green leaves livened up by splashes of white variegation. It’s one of the most eye-catching variegated pothos plants available, and, despite being a rare plant, it’s surprisingly affordable. 

This variety of pothos was discovered by plant breeder Ashish Arvind Hansoti in a commercial greenhouse in India in 2010. It was officially patented in 2016 and has been a sensation with houseplant lovers ever since.

Care for Manjula pothos is relatively simple. You’ll need to pay attention to watering and ensuring it gets enough light to maintain its lush variegation. 

Keep reading to discover more about its indoor care requirements and which common problems to avoid.

What Is Manjula Pothos?

This variegated plant is a patented pothos cultivar with round, heart-shaped leaves and white, cream, and sometimes silvery-green variegation. Belonging to the Araceae family of Epipremnum aureum, more commonly known as Devil’s Ivy. It has a compact growth habit and short gaps between the leaf nodes.

Making it an excellent choice if you’re looking for a pothos variety that maintains a full, bushy look even after it starts trailing. 

According to the patent documentation, the botanical name for Manjula pothos is Epipremnum pinnatum’ HANSOTI14’

Manjula Pothos Care Guide

We’ll cover some general pothos plant care tips and specific cultivar advice to keep you Manjula pothos living its best life.


This pothos grows best in bright indirect light. Place the plant in a room facing east or west, about 2 – 3 feet away from the window. 

Providing bright light conditions is essential to maintain its variegation and prevent leggy growth. However, avoid direct sunlight exposure, which can burn the leaves and result in dry, brown spots/scorch marks. So, ensure you keep your plant in the correct lighting.


Plant your pothos in a well-draining but moisture-retentive soil mix. A potting mix combination of equal parts universal potting soil, orchid bark, and perlite or pumice will be ideal. 

You can also add some worm castings to give the plant a nutrient boost. 

Finally, adding a handful of horticultural charcoal to your care routine will improve drainage and soil filtration, which will help keep the roots healthy. 


Water your plant when the top 2 inches of the soil feel dry to the touch. Use your finger to test the soil moisture, and water the plant if it feels dry enough. 

Another easy way to tell that your pothos needs watering is when the leaves start to curl.

This pothos is very sensitive to overwatering. If you don’t allow the soil to dry out slightly, the roots will start to rot, potentially killing your plant. 

Constantly damp soil can also become a breeding ground for fungi and bacteria and can harbor the larvae of pests such as fungus gnats.  


Manjula is a tropical plant that grows best in a temperature ranges between 70°F and 84°F (21°C to 29°C). It will struggle to grow if temperatures exceed 90°F (32°C) or if they drop below 59°F (15°C) for more than a couple of days in a row. Making it an ideal indoor plant if you live in a colder climate.

You will also want to prevent exposing your pothos to sudden hot or cold drafts. Avoid keeping it next to a draft window, an air conditioning unit, or a heating vent. 

Drastic temperature changes can make your plant develop drooping stems and sudden wilting.


Pothos Manjula needs a humidity of around 60% for optimal growth. If the air in your home is too dry, try using a humidifier. Alternatively, place the pot on top of a pebble tray to increase humidity naturally.

High humidity can encourage faster growth and larger leaves. However, dry air indoors can result in crispy leaf tips and brown edges. You can also place your Manjula in naturally high-humidity rooms like bathrooms if there are the correct light levels.


Feed your pothos once a month throughout spring and summer with a balanced fertilizer for foliage plants. 

For example, use fertilizer in Manjula pothos soil with an N-P-K nutrient ratio of 10-10-10 or a 20-20-20 fertilizer diluted to half strength. 

Pothos plants enter a brief period of dormancy in winter. So they won’t need any additional feeding. But if you’re using grow lights, you can continue fertilizing them even during the colder, darker months. 


Manjula pothos grows slowly, so you don’t need to prune it too often. Instead, you can trim the yellowing leaves from the bottom of the vines to maintain the plant’s look. 

Also, pruning the longest vines in spring will encourage them to branch out and produce more stems.


Your pothos typically needs to be repotted every 2-3 years. The best time to do this is in spring or summer. 

An easy way to tell if your pothos needs a new pot is by checking the drainage holes on the bottom of the current container. If you can see roots coming out, it means it’s time for an upgrade.

Always keep your Manjula pothos in a pot one size bigger or 2 inches wider than the old container. Also, ensure that the pot has drainage holes at the bottom to ensure that the soil does not become waterlogged, as Manjula prefers well-draining soil.

Manjula Pothos Propagation Guide: Propagate Like a Pro

Create a new plant with Manjula pothos by propagating with stem cuttings. In spring or summer, take a few single-node cuttings and root them in water or sphagnum moss. The cuttings take about 4 to 6 weeks before they’re ready to plant into the soil. 

To give your cuttings the best chance of becoming established, plant them when the roots are at least 2 inches (5 cm) long. 

After transplanting, you can also cover the pot with a transparent plastic bag to create a mini-greenhouse effect that helps the baby plants thrive. 

Check out our complete pothos propagation guide!

4 Common Problems With Manjula Variety of Pothos

1.) Pests 

Common pests for these types of pothos include thrips, scale, mealybugs, and spider mites. These small insects can cause yellowing leaves, discoloration, and stunted growth. 

Check your plant at least once a week for any signs of pests, and use an insecticidal soap solution or systemic pesticide to get rid of severe infestations. 

2.) Brown Leaves

Brown leaf spots can be the result of root rot from overwatering. Brown spots can also indicate that your pothos is receiving too much light. And that the intense sun is scorching the foliage. 

Find out more about the exact cause of pothos leaves turning brown and how to fix it.

3.) Leaves Turning Green

Manjula leaves can revert to all-green variegation if it’s in low light conditions and not receiving enough light. 

Try moving your pothos closer to a brighter window, or maybe add artificial light if you notice these changes in variegation in the leaves.

4.) Small Leaves

Pothos leaves getting smaller can be a sign that the plant needs repotting or that it needs more fertilizer. However, new leaves will naturally become smaller if you don’t give your plant something to climb on, such as a moss pole. 

Manjula vs. Marble Queen Pothos

Manjula pothos and Marble Queen plants vary primarily in their leaf structure and place of origin; Manjula pothos leaves are curly and frilly. 

The Manjula color is like the Marble Queen and N’Joy pothos combined. Marble Queens leaves have a splash pattern in cream, green, and white shades. 

Marble Queen has faster plant growth, but both plants are easy to care for. 

Manjula vs. Pearls and Jade Pothos

Manjula pothos looks to have larger and softer leaves than Pearls and Jade. Manjula leaves are also wavier.

FAQ About the Manjula Pothos Plant

Is Manjula Pothos Toxic?

The Manjula plant is toxic to both humans and pets. If ingested, the calcium oxalate crystals in the stems and leaves can cause painful mouth and throat irritations, difficulty breathing, and gastrointestinal problems. 

So, keep the plant out of reach of children or pets.

What Is a Mutant Manjula Pothos?

Mutant Manjula is a naturally-occurring mutation of the Manjula pothos. It has narrow, elongated, dark green leaves with a white stripe down the middle. 

The University of Florida bred the plant, which appeared on the houseplant market in March 2022. Unfortunately, it is incredibly rare and costly.

According to unofficial sources, the plant was not intended for public release because it’s challenging to grow and not viable for commercial production. 

To this day, it’s still unclear how it escaped from the University of Florida greenhouses. 

What’s the Difference Between Manjula and Harlequin Pothos?

Manjula and Harlequin pothos are the same plant. Harlequin is more variegated, with white leaves, a few green streaks, and speckles. 

If you give your Manjula more light, it will eventually turn into a Harlequin pothos. 

Final Thoughts & Care Tips

While Manjula pothos care is simple, finding it in plant shops can be challenging. Keep the plant out of direct light, don’t overwater, and give it the soil and temperature the plant likes. If you can find the Manjula, you won’t be disappointed!

This article was produced by Nature of Home, and syndicated by healing-water.org.

4 Best Herbs to Grow in the Kitchen + Storing & Drying

The center of the home is the kitchen. It is a place where people congregate, cook, and feed one another. 

It’s also one of the most suitable places to keep plants because there’s less worry about water damage or messes, thanks to wipeable countertops and sweepable floors. And there’s always a water source available (you can sprinkle them with water from the sink or give them a quick soak). 

You’ll find four helpful herbs you can grow in your kitchen below and suggestions for keeping greenery out of the way since this kitchen can be such a busy space. 

1.) Basil 

basil growing in a kitchen.

We all agree that basil and juicy tomatoes go together beautifully. Grocery stores frequently offer the ubiquitous green variety in bundles and as growing plants. 

African blue basil (Ocimum kilimandscharicum), a blue variety, might not be available at your neighborhood grocery store. Still, its deep violet blooms and eye-catching stems make it worth looking for. 

It thrives in direct sunlight and should be protected from drafts during the winter. Plant in a pot with a drainage hole, and keep the soil moist but not soggy. 

2.) Lemongrass 

lemongrass slices on a kitchen counter.

This Asian cooking staple has a tropical fountain look that rivals many ornamental types of grass in appearance and also has a citrusy fragrance. 

Use the stem’s tender, green base in stir-fries and curries, or use the leaves as an infusion in tea. 

Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), which prefers direct sunlight, is an excellent addition to a sunny windowsill; ensure the soil is kept damp but not soggy. 

Harvest frequently to encourage new growth, and if you have extra, dry it out or freeze it, so you always have some on hand. 

3.) Oregano 

fresh and dried oregano in the kitchen.

Both marjoram (Origanum majorana) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) were known as the “joy of the mountain” by the Greeks. In Greek mythology, Aphrodite made oregano as a representation of joy. 

When dried, its peppery, pungent aroma becomes more pronounced. 

Allow the plant to receive direct sunlight for optimum growth and only water when the soil feels dry. 

4.) Thyme 

freshly grown thyme herb.

Thyme was burned in Greece as a sacrifice to the gods, and medieval soldiers thought taking a bath in it would give them courage. 

Choose a variety that appeals to you from the more than 350 available, including the golden variegated lemon thyme (Thymus x citriodorus ‘Aureus’). 

Thyme pairs well with chicken and vegetable dishes, invigorate a pot of tea, and, when its oils are crushed, can be used to make a simple at-home mosquito repellent

Water the plant when the top inch (2.5 cm) of soil becomes dry, and give it direct sunlight or at least six hours of bright indirect light each day. 

2 Options for Growing Herbs in Kitchens


Photo: AeroGarden

The AeroGarden is a high-tech, compact hydroponic system that is expensive, but it’s well worth it. It has an LED lighting setup that promotes photosynthesis and plant development, even throughout the winter and in dimly lit spaces.

Urban Leaf Indoor Herb Garden Kit

Photo: Urban Leaf

The Urban Leaf beginner kit for a herb garden includes everything you need to cultivate fragrant, fresh herbs on your windowsill. Cheaper than the above AeroGarden kit, but it gets the job done.

Includes: A wooden planter box, specialized soil discs, biodegradable coco coir pots, chic bamboo labels, and non-GMO basil, cilantro, and parsley seeds are all included in each package.

Storing & Drying

Here are a few easy methods for growing and storing herbs in your kitchen, whether you are just starting out with a single plant or are a culinary expert who wants a wide variety of flavors at your fingertips. 

Hanging or Staging Your Kitchen Herbs

herbs drying in kitchen.

Keep your herbs in their grow pots and arrange them in a pretty cachepot for an easy way to store them. 

You can also find grow boxes with a tray to catch any extra water, which can perfectly accommodate three 4-inch (10-cm) grow pots. As the seasons change or when a culinary inspiration strikes, pop pots in and out. 

Make your own hanging herb garden out of a multitiered fruit basket, a kitchen staple. As an added upgrade, pair with low-cost terra cotta pots that have been painted in the color of your choice. 

 The ‘Kent Beauty’ oregano, grown more for appearance than flavor, makes the ideal hanging plant because it produces pendulous flowers with a strong fragrance. 

Cutting the Herbs

Freshly cut the bottoms of the stems after purchasing herbs at the market, then place the herbs in a vase with cool water. 

To keep the water clear, remove any leaves that are submerged. Then, instead of fumbling with a jumble of greens, you can separate each herb into its own slot using a multi-mouthed vase. 

Cut herbs can stay fresh for a week or longer if you change the water frequently and keep them out of direct sunlight, even though this storage method is more transient than keeping a potted plant. 

During this time, they will fill your kitchen with their enticing scents! 

Hanging & Drying the Herbs 

Hanging dried herbs will extend their shelf life and add a splash of color to your kitchen wall. 

Herbs should be bundled and hung upside-down for a few weeks, after which they should be kept in an airtight container away from direct light and used within a few months (their flavor will gradually fade). 

Oregano, sage, and thyme dry more attractively than rosemary and basil do if you plan to keep the herbs on display. 

This article was produced by Nature of Home, and syndicated by healing-water.org.

13 Best Border Plants For Edging

Border plants are a great way to complete a garden’s design, whether edging a walkway or finishing a flower bed.

We’ll share 13 beautiful border plants that need little care but are still low-maintenance. The plants can significantly enhance any outdoor area. In addition, some come with additional benefits that will increase the value of having living garden edging.

Also, some of the plants can withstand foot traffic. And on sweltering summer days, nothing beats walking on plants barefoot instead of hot pavement or stone.

Plants also provide numerous advantages to the garden, such as crowding out weeds, retaining moisture, minimizing soil erosion, and providing habitat for important pollinators.

These plants come in various sizes, from tall to short, spreading or compact, helping you create the appearance of professionally designed places in your garden.

1.) Alyssum

Alyssum planted in garden edging

Alyssum is a well-liked option for use in borders because of its attractively delicate blossoms, which can create an impression when planted in clusters.

These plants are compact in size, only reaching around 9″ tall. Making them versatile in that they won’t block out other garden plants.

The excellent characteristics of Alyssum are that it is fast-growing and low-maintenance. The downfall is Aphids can be a problem. If you notice an aphid problem, you’ll want to add or attract ladybugs, which will eat aphids and keep the pest at bay.

Growing: Does best in USDA zones 5 -9, with well-draining, slightly moist soil. It may need a little extra watering during low rain periods.

2.) Lantana

lantana flower plants for landscaping border.

Lantana is available in red, yellow, orange, and white varieties, injecting a blaze of color into the landscape, making it an excellent choice for an edging plant.

Blooms in summer and fall. The leaves have a rough sandpaper feel to them. 

These plants give off a citrus smell that attracts pollinators like butterflies. One in particular that enjoys Lantana is the spicebush swallowtail.

Growing: Fast-growing perennial in USDA zones 8-11. Does best in full sun.

Caution: Lantana is known to be toxic to some animals.

3.) Firebush

firebush plant used in the garden.

Hamelia patens, the scientific name for the commonly known plant, firebush, is a perennial or semi-woody shrub. 

The vivid red flowers of firebush are a favorite of gardeners and wildlife, drawing in pollinators like hummingbirds and butterflies, such as the zebra longwing and gulf fritillary. But, of course, those berries are a favorite food of songbirds, too.

Firebush displays evergreen leaves coated with red hairs during the summer, while the plant yields orange tubular blooms.

Thrives in USDA hardiness zones 8-11, with late spring or summer being the best time to grow a firebush. Full sun is ideal for growth and blooming but may also be grown in partial shade. 

Gardeners in coastal locations may appreciate that it is also relatively resistant to salt spray.

Planting is easy and can thrive in almost any soil as long as it drains properly.

4.) Ixora

Ixora plant edging a garden.

Ixora, commonly known as West Indian Jasmine, creates a stunning display of flowers and leaves. Its blossoms appear in hypnotizing hues of pink, orange, and yellow.

Does best in USDA zones 9+. With well-draining soil that is alkaline.

5.) Canna 

canna lily plants in a garden

Beautiful orange, red, and yellow blooms are displayed with the Canna plants. Also, sometimes called canna lilies. 

Perennials that will give your garden a tropical feel. 

Planting a rhizome in the spring after the last frost will cause it to wait a few weeks to sprout, but it will then develop rapidly and usually bloom in the first year.

Growing: Does best in USDA zones 6a-10a with slightly acidic soil. 

6.) Hostas

hostas along a garden path.

The classic and attractive leaves of hostas make them a fantastic option for lining a garden path. Hostas are herbaceous perennial plants that can tolerate a range of conditions.

These edging plants for borders draw just the right amount of attention with their unique leaf shape and flowering blooms. 

You can also get creative with hosta varieties. There is a wide range to choose from, even blue-colored varieties.

hostas planted in garden.

Growing: USDA zones 3-9 and grow best in partial shade to full shade. They are also water lovers. So ensure the soil stays moist or water regularly if needed. Outside of that, they are not too picky.

7.) Lavender

lavender plants in a garden.

Modest height and colorful blooms have made lavender a favorite edging plant. Not to mention the hypnotic scent the plant gives off.

Lavender is a classic garden plant that will look great just about anywhere. 

As a bonus, you’ll attract more life to your garden as the plants attract beneficial insects. Such as bees and butterflies. 

What’s great about lavender is that it often thrives in poor-quality soil. In addition, it doesn’t require much water and is considered a drought-tolerant plant. So, make sure it is in well-draining soil that is slightly alkaline.

This border plant requires a good amount of sun, so make sure not to plant it in a shady area. It also needs alkaline to mildly neutral pH soil. It is recommended not to add any organic soil when planting.

lavender plants

If you’re still not sold on lavender, check this out. A study was completed in 2002, showing lavender can be used to keep mosquitoes away. The study showed the essential oil of Lavender officinalis worked at keeping adult mosquitoes away.

8.) Ferns

ferns along a garden path of stone.

Ferns can be an excellent choice along wooded trails and pathways if you have a shaded garden.

Some of the world’s oldest plants, ferns thrive in temperate, tropical, and colder regions.

Numerous varieties available can grow in a range of growing zones. Just place them in full to partial shade with moist and rich soil. 

9.) Moss Phlox

landscape edging with moss phlox plant

Also called creeping phlox, this plant produces small and colorful blooms making Moss phlox an easy-care, beautiful option for borders and edging.

It does best in loamy, sandy soil that is well-draining in partial to full shade.

Growing: USDA growing zones 5-9.

10.) Zinnias

zinnia used as garden edging.

Zinnias of varying heights and hues in a garden border provide a stunning visual effect. And it’s straightforward to cultivate and adaptable in a wide variety of situations.

zinnia plants up close.

One bummer about zinnias is that there are annual, not perennial. Although, you can save the seeds at the end of the year and replant the follower season.

Growing: Does best in USDA zones 3-10, in well-draining neutral pH soil. 

11.) Begonias

begonia planted on the edge of a garden bed.

There is a wide range of begonias available, each of which is suited to a different kind of soil and temperature, making them a flexible choice for use as a garden border.

12.) Lady’s Mantle

ladys mantle plant in the garden along a path.

Beautiful groundcover, Lady’s Mantle is an excellent choice for shady areas like pathways and tree canopies. This is the plant to use if you need to soften the edges of your borders.

Featuring greenish-yellow blooms with a soft texture. 

This border plant doesn’t like too much direct sun or heat. So, if you’re in a hot climate, you may want to mulch the base and plant in an area that gets some afternoon shade.

Growing Zones: Does best in USDA zones 3-8.

13.) Creeping Thyme

pathway with creeping thyme.
Creeping thyme was planted between the stone pathway (not in bloom).

Creeping thyme is another excellent border plant. It’s a fragrant ground cover with lovely purple blooms. The blossoms have a light, herbal aroma, releasing that perfume when crushed.

Great for brightening up garden beds and softening harsh landscape edging. 

Another herbaceous perennial that stays company in size. Only reaches 6″ tall and reach about 18″ wide. 

Creeping thyme is similar to lavender in that it doesn’t like much water (once established) and needs sun. 

creeping thyme in bloom.

Tip: If you want your plants to be more “bushy,” you can regularly prune them. This will create more stems and also get rid of dead foliage. 

Growing: Does best in USDA zones 4-9 with full sun.

This article was produced by Nature of Home, and syndicated by healing-water.org.