Rain Chains: What They Are + Why You Need One + How to Make Your Own

If you’re looking for an alternative to ugly downspouts, you might want to think about installing rain chains. Rain chains guide rainwater away from your house while also beautifying its exterior.  

Although they are a relatively recent trend in American housing design, Japanese architects have used rain chains since the late 1500s. Known in Japanese as kusari-doi, rain chains first appeared on Sukiya-style tea houses.

They gained popularity in the United States thanks to broadcasts of the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan. 

Whether you want to revamp your house’s exterior design or improve its functionality, read on to learn why rain chains will make a great addition to your home gutter system. 

Purpose & Promise 

Rain chains provide an attractive and functional alternative to gutter downspouts. Although you can certainly use rain chains in addition to using downspouts, rain chains typically replace downspouts, hanging vertically down to a water catch. 

When it rains, water flows off the roof into your gutter system. It travels through the gutters toward the hole where the downspout used to be. The rain chain directs water away from the roof. Then, the water travels down the chain into a water catch or redirector. 

Design plus functionality sounds like a winning combination. But do rain chains actually work? 

Yes, rain chains work!

The design of rain chains relies on surface tension to guide water from the gutter to the ground. Rainwater flows down the roof and into the roof’s gutter system; the gutter funnels the water to a hole through which a rain chain hangs. Once the water begins to drain through this hole, it follows the path of least resistance (in other words, along the chain) down to the ground. 

Rain chains even work in areas that experience heavy rainfall. (Keep reading to learn which type of rain chain works best in wet regions.) 

Why Rain Chains?

bird on a rain chain

If you’re wondering why you would want to replace downspouts with rain chains, the simple answer is visual appeal. 

Downspouts are at best invisible and at worst an eyesore. Rain chains take the functionality of downspouts and add decorative flair. 

Unlike downspouts, which hide rushing water, rain chains transform cascading water into a kind of kinetic work of art. Available in many different designs, rain chains give you the ability to match a necessary architectural structure to the aesthetic of your house.

In addition to their visual appeal, rain chains provide aural ambiance on rainy days. When water travels down the rain chains, it produces a delicate tinkling sound similar to a bell or wind chime. This tinkling is a marked improvement over the irritating drip drip drip of downspouts. 

Rain chains also offer several practical advantages. When combined with rain barrels or similar vessels, rain chains can play a vital role in rainwater harvesting and water conservation. Additionally, rain chains help control drainage and reduce erosion.

Best of all, rain chains eliminate much of the upkeep associated with downspouts. Leaves and twigs that once would have clogged your downspout will pass your rain chain. In addition, standing water once hidden inside the curve of your downspout now drains appropriately. 

Types of Rain Chains

There are two types of rain chains: link-style and cup-style. Which kind you use depends on aesthetic preference and the amount of rainfall you typically receive. 


link style rain chain on frank lloyd wright cottage
Frank Lloyd Wright hated downspouts. This rain chain is installed on Seth Peterson’s cottage.

Traditional rain chains are a literal link of chains that hang vertically from your gutter. The individual links can take a variety of attractive shapes, from standard ovals and circles to rectangles, diamonds, and teardrops.


Japanese cup-style rain chain design

Cup-style rain chains work on the same design principle as link-style rain chains with the addition of small cups. Spaced at intervals down the chain, these cups help slow water flow as it travels to the bottom of the chain. 

The ‘cups’ can take various forms: open-mouthed bass, suns, spirals, lotus petals, umbrellas, and more — any attractive shape that will slow the cascade of water. As a variation on this theme, you can also find rain chains adorned with cascading leaves that slow the water as it travels to the ground. 

If you live in an area that experiences heavy rainfall or is prone to soil erosion, use cup-style rain chains rather than link-style. 


Rain chains are traditionally made of copper. If untreated, copper will oxidize and form a rustic green patina. (Copper alloys, brass, and bronze will also patinate over time.) 

If you prefer to avoid patination, purchase a rain chain made of rust-resistant metal such as aluminum or stainless steel. And if you prefer something colorful rather than metallic, you can purchase powder-coated rain chains. 

Heads Up: Avoid using lightweight metals such as aluminum when installing rain chains in windy areas. Instead, use a heavier material such as galvanized steel. 

At the Bottom of the Rain Chain

rain chain on a brick building

The primary purpose of a rain chain is to move water away from the foundation of your house. This means you need to think about where rainwater goes once it has traveled down the rain chain. 

At the bottom of the chain, you will need to position some type of rain catch to either collect or drain the rainwater.

Fortunately, you have many different options when it comes to catching rainwater. Read on to learn about the best options for water conservation.


A rain chain basin is a large cement or metal bowl that collects the water after traveling down the chain. You can also use a movable pot to use the collected rainwater to water your garden efficiently. 

When using basins, be sure you can easily drain or remove the collected water. (Standing water can attract mosquitoes. Overflowing water can contribute to soil erosion.) 

French Drain

A French drain is a large basin that catches rainwater and then drains it away from the house underground.

If your home gutter system already includes an underground drainpipe, you can leave this system in place; simply replace the downspout with a rain chain, and position the bottom of the rain chain at the top of the French drain. 

Rain Barrels 

rain barrels can be used with rain chains

Rain Barrels are your best option for water conservation. As the name suggests, rain barrels are barrels that collect rain. They typically contain a faucet or hose attachment. 

This allows you to use the (non-potable) water you’ve collected to wash your car, water your garden, or accomplish other outside chores. 

Plus, you can buy decorative rain barrels, so it’s quite possible to merge functionality with aesthetics once again! 

Dry Creek Bed

Dry creek beds are an excellent way to drain water away from your house in style! When there is good water flow you will have an amazing-looking stream. 

And when the weather is dry, the creek bed will add a more natural look to your yard. 

Pro Tip: Use some good-sized boulders and quality river rock. And, “less is more” with boulders.

Water Features

If you want to accentuate the rain chain’s visual appeal, consider placing a water feature at the bottom of your rain chain. 

Whether you prefer spinning mills or mini waterfalls, you can harness the power of the cascading water to create an aquatic spectacle. (Just ensure the water feature can be easily drained or emptied.) 



Prefabricated rain chains typically come with an installation kit that includes all the materials needed. 

Whether installing a chain you purchased or made, keep reading to learn how to install rain chains. 

1.) Identify a Location 

Choose a location for your rain chain. Typically, rain chains replace downspouts. However, you can also place rain chains where the gutter system already leaks. 

If your house does not have a gutter system, watch your roofline the next time it rains. Identify where water naturally concentrates – usually an area where roof lines come together. 

You can also inspect the ground immediately below the roof edge to spot areas of soil loss. Placing a rain chain above these areas can help reduce rainfall energy and thus reduce erosion. 

2.) Prepare the Hole

If you are replacing your downspouts with rain chains, disconnect the downspout from where it’s attached to the roof’s gutter system. 

This step should be pretty straightforward unless the screw heads have rusted.

If you want to install rain chains in addition to downspouts, you can clip a hole in your gutters to hang your rain chains through.

3.) Attach the Rain Chain Bracket

If you purchase a rain chain, follow the manufacturer’s instructions for installing the bracket, as attachment systems vary. 

In most cases, rain chains come with a V-shaped bracket. Set this bracket in the hole previously occupied by the downspout. 

The V should point down, with the tails catching on either side of the hole to keep it from falling through. 

After you have positioned the bracket, hook the first link of the chain around the dip in the V. 

4.) Install a Water Catch System

Select your water catch system: basin, rain barrel, French drain, or water feature. Place your water catcher at the bottom of your rain chain. 

If you’re using a rain barrel, make sure the rain chain rests just above the top of the barrel. 

Typically, their proximity to the house protects rain chains from the wind. However, if you live in an area that experiences high winds, anchor the rain chain to the ground or water catch. 

Consider surrounding the water catch system with ¾ inch drainage rocks. Rocks with rough edges will help prevent water from pooling if your water catch overflows.  

5.) Test the Rain Chain

After installing your rain chain:

  1. Test that the system works by spraying a hose on the roof of your house.
  2. Observe how water travels through the gutter system and down your rain chain.
  3. Make any adjustments to ensure water is draining away from the foundation of your house and not causing erosion. 

How to Make Your Own Rain Chain

making your own rain chains with standard chain

Making your rain chain allows you to customize the length and design of your newest home feature. For a low-effort rain chain, simply add a standard steel chain to the bracket described in Step 4. But if the industrial look doesn’t match your aesthetic, keep reading. 

1.) Create the Chain Links

You will need ¼ inch flexible copper tubing. A 5-foot chain requires 20 feet of tubing. 

Form the copper tubing into the chain links by wrapping it around a broom handle (or any slender round object measuring at least 1 ½ inches in diameter). Wrap the tubing as tightly as possible around the broom handle. 

Once you’ve coiled the entire length of tubing, remove the copper from the pole. 

2.) Cut the Links

Place the wound copper into a bench vice. Close the vice tight enough to hold the copper in place but not so tight that you distort the shape. 

Then, use a reciprocating saw to cut through the copper. (Make sure to use a blade specifically designed for cutting thin metal.) For increased stability, rest the saw’s bottom on the top of the vice. 

Pause sawing as needed to feed the uncut copper through the vice. Be careful not to cut through the bottom of the link. 

3.) Assemble the Chain 

If you have successfully cut the links, you should have a pile of small, individual copper rings with one slit cutting through each ring. These will form the links of your chain.

Select one of the copper rings. Then, use pliers to open the ring wide enough to fit another ring through the slit. 

Next, find a link whose ends are already well-aligned. Close the gap using groove joint pliers. Add this closed ring to your open ring. Close the open ring, again using groove joint pliers. This will form the beginning of your chain link. 

Select and open another copper ring. Add this ring to either end of your chain link. Repeat this process until you’ve reached your desired chain length. 

4.) Install the Chain

Prepare the hole in your gutter system where you will install your rain chain. 

Cut a 15-inch length of copper tubing. Bend the tubing into a V shape with serif-like ends. 

Pull the end of the chain through the gutter hole. Feed the V through the top link in the chain, then rest the chain in the hole so that the point of the V (which should be holding the chain) hangs through the hole. The ends of the V will hold it in place. 

Position your rain catch at the bottom of the rain chain, and wait for the rain to come!

If you want to create a cup-style rain chain, create decorative embellishments using copper sheet metal. Attach the embellishments to your rain chain using copper wire. 

These additions will help slow the water as it travels to the ground.  


Rain chains generally require less maintenance than downspouts. However, you will still need to check periodically that your rain chains are functioning correctly. 

Depending on the material of your rain chain, rain chains (plus rainwater) can add more weight to your house’s gutters than a downspout would. 

Check your roof structure and gutters for signs of stress, adding reinforcement where necessary. You can make this check twice a year when cleaning your gutters.

Examine the ground surrounding the chain for signs of standing water or erosion. You want to make sure that the water is draining correctly. 

If you see signs of erosion, add more drainage rocks or install a larger basin. If you see standing water, you will need to adjust to direct the water away from your house. 

At the end of autumn, remove rain chains before temperatures drop below freezing. The cold will not hurt the metal links, but any precipitation on the chain could turn to ice. 

Although interesting to look at, this ice will increase the chain’s weight – potentially straining your house’s gutter system. 

rain chain in winter


Rain chains are a functional and attractive alternative to downspouts. Want an eye-catching solution to water drainage? Consider using this centuries-old design to accent the architecture of your house. 

Purchase rain chains at most garden centers and nurseries. Many online retailers also specialize in rain chains. 

In terms of price, rain chains can range from $50 to $1000+. But really, can you put a price on the increased looks and never have to unclog a downspout?

Frequently Asked Questions

Does a rain chain work in heavy rain?

Yes, rain chains can work with heavy rain (design of chain factors into this as well). Although, the rain will bypass some of the chain and flow directly onto the ground. This should not be an issue if you have a proper design, such as a French drain that carries the water away from your foundation.

Does a rain chain need to be attached to a gutter?

Sure, you could use a rain chain without a gutter. It just needs a solid mounting point that can handle the load. 

Do rain chains cause flooding?

No, they do not cause flooding. In fact, they help slow down water. Which helps rainwater soak into the ground instead of the sewer systems. 

Is a rain chain better than gutters?

Every situation is different, and you need to design water management properly. But, a rain chain helps slow down water and look better than downspouts. 

Can you hang a rain chain from a tree?

You could install a rain chain on a tree or anywhere that can securely handle the load.

How much rain can a rain chain handle?

It’s not so much the chain but rather the basin that matters. Ensure the ground system can handle the amount of rain from your roof. And adequately drain water away from the foundation. While limiting splashing.

What do you do with rain chains in the winter?

You can leave rain chains installed in winter or take them down. The main concern will be added weight from freezing ice. This applies to the chain itself and the mounting material. 

Can you use a rain chain and downspout?

Yes, you could combine the two if you would like. Just ensure water drains properly.

Do rain chains need to be anchored at the bottom?

They are not required to be anchored, but it’s better. Bad storms usually bring high winds and could cause the chain to swing around. Potentially hitting your house or causing water to flow where it shouldn’t. 

Can I use regular chain for rain chain?

Sure, you can use a regular chain. Just know that different materials and designs will work differently. A cup-style chain will slow more water than a regular chain.


This article originally was published at natureofhome.com and syndicated by healing-water.org.

Rain Chains: How They Benefit Water

bird on a rain chain

Installing rain chains might be an attractive alternative to unsightly downspouts. Rain chains divert precipitation away from your home while also enhancing its appearance.

Rain chains have been employed by Japanese architects since the late 1500s, despite the fact that they are a relatively new trend in American building design. When they originally appeared on Sukiya-style teahouses, rain chains were referred to as kusari-doi.

Because of the coverage of the Winter Olympics in the city of Nagano, Japan during 1998, rain chains became popular in the United States.

For both aesthetic and functional reasons, rain chains may be a terrific addition to your gutter system, so read on to find out why.

Features and Uses

To avoid the unsightly appearance of gutter downspouts, use rain chains instead.

Downspouts can be used alongside rain chains, however, in most cases, rain chains hang vertically down to a water catch.

Gutters collect water from your roof during a rainstorm. You will find a hole where the downspout used to be, and it runs through the gutters toward it.

A rain chain is used to help slow water coming off of the roof. Chained to a water catch or redirector, water goes along its path in the chain.

The idea of combining aesthetics with practicality sounds like a winning formula. However, do rain chains really work?

Rain chains absolutely do work, there’s no doubt about that!

To move water from the gutter to the ground, rain chains use surface tension. There is a rain chain that hangs from a hole in a gutter system on the roof, which directs rainwater into the gutter system.

In other words, once the water starts flowing out of this hole, it will travel down the chain and eventually end up at ground level.

Even in locations that receive a lot of rain, rain chains still operate. (To find out which kind of rain chain works best in rainy areas, continue reading.)

Why Embrace Rain Chains?

link style rain chain

Why would you want to replace your gutters with rain chains? The simple explanation is that they’re more visually appealing.

At best, downspouts are unnoticeable; at worst, they’re an eyesore. Decorative rain chains enhance the practicality of downspouts.

As opposed to downspouts, rain chains make the sound of water flowing into a type of kinetic art. With a wide range of styles, rain chains allow you to fit the architectural structure of your home with its attractiveness.

Besides their aesthetic beauty, rain chains provide an acoustic ambiance on rainy days. Rain chains generate a beautiful tinkling sound, like a wind chime or a bell ringing. Over the unpleasant drip of downspouts, this tinkling is an improvement.

Furthermore, rain chains have a number of useful properties. To capture rainwater and conserve water, the use of rain chains in conjunction with barrels or other containers is quite beneficial. With rain chains, erosion is reduced and drainage is improved.

The best part is that rain chains take care of a lot of the maintenance that comes with downspouts. Your rain chain will wash away fallen leaves and twigs that used to obstruct your downspout. Now that the downspout curve has been opened, any previously trapped water may be easily drained.

Rain Chain Varieties

Both link-style and cup-style rain chains are accessible. It all comes down to personal choice and the quantity of rain you get on a regular basis.


cup style rain chain

Cup-style rain chains are similar to link-style rain chains in that they have little cups attached to them. These cups help tone down the movement of liquid as it descends to the bottom of the chain due to space at intervals down the chain.

The ‘cups can assume a number of forms: open-mouthed bass, spirals, suns, umbrellas, lotus petals and more — any beautiful design that would halt the stream of water. Rain chains embellished with cascading leaves are another variant on this motif that helps to delay the water’s descent to the earth.

In areas where rainfall is severe or soil erosion is a problem, utilize cup-style rain chains instead of link-style rain chains.


Traditional rain chains consist of a series of links suspended from your gutter in a vertical position. Individual links can be made in a range of forms, including ovals, circles, rectangles, diamonds, and teardrops, as well as the more traditional oval and circle.


Copper has long been the material of choice for rain chains. Copper will oxidize and develop a rustic green patina if left untreated. Patina will form on copper alloys such as brass and bronze, as well as on copper itself.

A rust-resistant metal rain chain, such as stainless steel or aluminum, is an option if you’d rather avoid patina. Alternatively, if you like a more vibrant look, you may get powder-coated rain chains.

When putting rain chains in windy places, avoid using aluminum, which is a lightweight metal. Instead, use galvanized steel, which is a heavier metal.

At the End of the Rain Chain

A rain chain’s primary function is to divert water away from the foundation of your home. As a result, you must consider what happens to rainfall after it travels through the rain chain.

Depending on how you intend to use the rainwater, you’ll need a rain catch at the bottom of the rain chain.

There are several ways to collect rainwater, which is a blessing. Read on to discover the best ways to conserve water.


After the water travels down the chain, it is collected in a huge cement or metal bowl. There are several ways to collect rainwater and use it in your garden, such as a mobile pot.

You should be able to drain or eliminate the water gathered in basins. (Mosquitoes are drawn to standing water.) Soil erosion can be exacerbated by overflowing water.)

French Drain

An underground French drain is a big basin that collects rainfall and then directs it away from the home. It’s possible to keep your home’s existing gutter system and only replace the downspout with a rain chain, putting the bottom of the rain chain on top of your French drain.

Barrels for collecting rainwater

Using rain barrels to conserve water is the greatest alternative available to you. Rain barrels, as the name implies, are barrels that hold rain. They frequently come with an attachment for attaching a faucet or hose. If you’ve gathered non-potable water, you may use it for things like washing your car, watering a garden, and so on.

There are also ornamental rain barrels, so you can combine use and beauty once again!

Water Features

At the bottom of your rain chain, you may add visual interest by incorporating a water element. You may use the falling water to your advantage by constructing spinning mills or small waterfalls. Make sure the water feature can be drained or flushed easily.


How creative! Check out this idea on how to make a rain chain using silverware. It doesn’t get any easier or inexpensive than that.

Wrapping Up

Downspouts may be unsightly and cumbersome, but rain chains are a great option. Looking for an eye-catching way to drain water? Make your home stand out by using this centuries-old style.

Most garden retailers and nurseries sell rain chains and they are being sold by a plethora of online businesses as well. Rain chains can cost as little as $50 to as much as $1000 or more.


Rain chains in Japan.

Biomimicry to Heal Water

As population growth increases and the pressures on our water supply increase, scientists are required to develop innovative and new ways to secure our nation’s precious natural resource. A new research discipline shows that the key to a viable survival strategy could be within nature.

BIOMIMICRY: Let nature build a better tommorow

Man has been studying the natural world for centuries. We first tried to control nature and hold it using our machines and structures. In many ways, we attempt to defend it from the same systems. However, our problems remain: billions of people worldwide are denied access to clean drinking water, while pollution threatens the water supplies of those with access.

The year 1997 was when US bioscientist Janine Benyus introduced the world to the concept of biomimicry. Since then, this new field has grown exponentially and leaps. Biomimicry can be described as the art of studying and replicating natural processes, forms, and ecosystems to overcome human design problems and develop environmentally sustainable designs.

Biomimicry reorients the world and asks us to think about what we can learn from nature and how we use that knowledge to incorporate it into our unique designs to imitate the creativity we see in nature.

There are three kinds of biomimicry: copying shape and form while another mimics an action, such as photosynthesis in a leaf. For example, the third mimics the level of ecosystems, like the construction of an urban environment inspired by nature.

The premise of nature is that imagining through necessity has solved a lot of the issues we’re currently battling. Microbes, plants, and animals are the ultimate scientists, engineers, physicists, and engineers. They have discovered what works, what’s appropriate, and, most importantly, the things that last on Earth.

Through looking at the examples of nature, we can create new and innovative solutions to engineering, design, and other problems we confront: in food production, energy, transportation, climate control, water supply, and much more. The goal for the Biomimicry Movement is the creation of organizations, products, processes, and policies that are new ways of living that are well-adapted to the earth’s environment in the long run. A key aspect to note about biomimicry is that it utilizes the principles of organisms, not microorganisms.


Recognizing the potentiality of this new science for waters as a whole, the Water Research Commission (WRC) began a five-year program to show the methodology of biomimicry in the South African setting. The project, led in partnership with Golder Associates Africa, together with the Cape Peninsula University of Technology and the University of the Witwatersrand and biomimicrySA, is expected to be completed by the end of next year.

We have always been thinking linearly when trying to solve our water-related problems. Consider the typical wastewater treatment chain where wastewater flows via concrete structure, it is processed, and then it flows out, as explained by WRC Research Manager Dr. Valerie Naidoo. “The biomimicry method requires us to think more three-dimensionally. Instead of fighting nature, we now look to it for ideas and using nature’s inherent principles to find solutions to our problems.”

Being the first time that the WRC has ventured into this area; the research is solely focused on biomimicry and wetlands design. Researchers seek natural resources for new ways to improve wetlands’ functioning and restore existing wetlands. “Wetlands are natural filters that remove pollutants from the water that flows through them. The economic benefit from this filtering process is huge, which reduces the price associated with downstream (potentially high energy) treatment systems as well as water purification” Dr. Naidoo. If it is successful, the method can be applied to other systems and processes when it is appropriate.

The research aims to harness the wisdom of nature cleanses water to engineer-designed wetlands that can meet the demands of current as well as emerging pathogens, pollutants, and pollutants. The project’s core team includes scientists and engineers with experience in various fields. Through the course of the project, experts have been invited to participate in seminars and workshops to integrate their knowledge and present a new method of designing constructed wetlands to treat water.

“This project is exciting because it’s not a simple method to implement. Researchers are being asked to abandon thinking of innovation through a conventional manner and to enter the multidisciplinary, creative environment,” says Dr. Naidoo. “This project is only the start of what we hope will be a new wave of creativity to enter the South African water space.”

So far, the team has experienced mixed reactions from friends; some scientists aren’t keen on changing their usual approach to thinking, while others are considering the possibilities of biomimicry. Perhaps the actual value of biomimicry won’t solve problems of the water sector but aid in economic development and the knowledge economy by creating new methods and products for the market.

What is Stormwater & How do we Manage it?

What is Stormwater?

Stormwater can be defined as precipitation, such as rain, snow, and sleet. Only a tiny percentage of stormwater becomes surface runoff in a natural setting. However, as development takes place, this percentage grows. This runoff flows into the nearest stream or creek, river, lake, or wetland.

What is Stormwater Management?

Stormwater management is the management of this surface runoff. Land development leads to a significant increase in runoff volume and frequency. The construction of impervious surfaces such as roads, parking lots, roofs, and storm sewer pipes, which efficiently collect and discharge stormwater runoff, helps prevent rainwater infiltration. Stormwater runoff must be managed to offset the potential impacts of impervious surfaces, including decreased groundwater recharge and increased frequency of flooding. Non-point source pollution is also a significant cause of stream impairment.

This management reduces flooding damage to property and people and helps prevent polluted runoff from affecting local waterways. Impervious surfaces disrupt the natural hydrologic cycle, causing less infiltration, interception, and evapotranspiration than before any development was made. The stormwater flow rate and volume produced by impervious surfaces have increased significantly. This stormwater runoff substantially contributes to flooding, sediment deposition, erosion, non-point source pollution, and stream channel instability.

Stormwater should not be considered a resource but has benefits like groundwater recharge. This maintains streams’ flows.

Stormwater management can also help reduce the severity and frequency of flooding. Stormwater management is a traditional method that uses surface runoff to divert it to a detention pool, which stores the water and releases it over time. This allows water to be returned to the groundwater at a higher volume and more extended. However, this does not always solve the problem but may lead to another. Stormwater can be recharged into groundwater to protect it from flooding and erosion.

Stormwater Runoff: Common Source Pollution


  • The most significant pollutant load is associated with sediment
  • Stormwater runoff in urban settings The loadings are exceptional.
  • Construction activity that does not have erosion controls can cause high levels.
  • Sediment can increase turbidity and harm aquatic and benthic habitats.
  • Reduces the impoundment capacity
  • Many other pollutants attach to and are carried by the body.
  • Sediment particles. Nutrients
  • Stormwater runoff contains phosphorus, nitrogen, and other nutrients.
  • Nutrient loads in surface waters can cause heavy algae growth, especially in impoundments, and low dissolved oxygen.
  • The urban system is contaminated by runoff from fertilizers for lawns and gardens (commercial and residential), leaks from septic systems and sanitary sewers, as well as animal wastes.
  • Organic Matter
  • Stormwater may carry various forms of organic matter in urban stormwater areas-organisms decompose this material in surface water.
  • Depletes oxygen levels.
  • Water quality and life are severely affected by low levels of dissolved oxygen in surface waters
  • Organic matter can be found in leaking septic systems and garbage, yard waste


Leakage of sanitary facilities can lead to high bacterial levels in stormwater runoff.

Systems, garbage, and animal waste

  • Surface water contamination can affect aquatic life and recreational activities and pose health risks. Oil and Grease
  • Stormwater can transport oil, grease, fuels, and lubricating substances from leaks or spills.
  • The level of pollutants in the water bodies adjacent to it is affected by the intensity of urban activities such as vehicle traffic and maintenance, fueling, and manufacturing activities.

Toxic Substances

  • Metals are toxic substances that can be found in urban stormwater.
  • Pesticides, herbicides, and hydrocarbons.
  • Toxic chemicals affect biological systems and accumulate at the bottom
  • Sediments of surface waters Heavy Metals
  • Urban stormwater runoff contains metals like copper, lead, zinc, arsenic, and chromium.
  • Stormwater metals can be toxic to some aquatic species and accumulate in aquatic marine animals.
  • Stormwater can be found in automobiles, paints, and preservatives in urban areas.


  • Stormwater runoff rises in temperature when it flows over impervious surfaces
  • Water stored in shallow, unshaded ponds is another option.
  • Temperature increases when there are impoundments.
  • The tree canopy can be removed to create water bodies that absorb solar energy.


  • Higher water temperatures can impact the water body’s ability to support certain fish and other aquatic organisms are at risk due to low dissolved oxygen levels.

Local communities also benefit from stormwater management. Facilities that are properly maintained can help reduce the costs of stream channel restoration and pollution mitigation. Stormwater drop inlets and culverts can be clogged with sediment and debris from runoff. These structures can be expensive to maintain, but stormwater management can help reduce these costs.


Stormwater reduction is an effective way property owners can help their community. Homeowners and businesses can use stormwater for other purposes by capturing it or using it to capture it. There are many ways to reduce stormwater runoff.

Rain barrels can be an effective and straightforward way to reduce stormwater runoff. Rain barrels are containers that collect rooftop runoff from buildings or houses. Any stormwater that falls from a roof or gutter will be compiled into the container (for a more attractive option use a rain chain). It can then be stored until it is ready to use. Water from the rain barrel can water plants, wash windows or cars, or even fill a swimming pool.

Vegetated roofs are another option that can be used to reduce stormwater runoff from a home or building. Vegetated roofs are made up of a waterproof membrane, or liner, on top. The soil or growth medium is then placed on top. Finally, the liner is seeded with grasses and other aquatic pond plants. You can make vegetated roofs more complicated by adding insulation or a piping system. If there is a significant amount of precipitation, the piping system may be required. In this case, the piping will transport the water to another collection system. Vegetative roofs enable vegetation to use the rainwater and reduce or eliminate stormwater from the shelter.


Stormwater runoff can be reduced by using best practices in restoration. Reclamation of disturbed sites to create natural landscapes is one example of best practices in stormwater management. These best practices include the use of riparian buffers and proper forest management.

Riparian buffers can be found around bodies of water or near them that act as buffers and cushions. Development may reach the edges of streams, rivers, or lakes in certain areas. Stormwater runoff directly into the waterway is causing this development to impact it. To provide a buffer for the waterwaywatercourse, riparian buffers can be restored to filter pollutants from stormwater before they reach the waterway channel. Riparian buffers can also stabilize streams and lakeshores and reduce erosion potential.

Planning and implementation are essential to good forest and land management practices that reduce stormwater runoff. Sometimes clearing a forest is necessary to accomplish specific goals. However, stormwater runoff increases from areas where the vegetation has been cleared. Stormwater runoff can be reduced or minimized using best practices like silt fencing and soil berms. Barren areas should be planted with vegetation that can grow in the current landscape conditions. The more vegetation established, the more significant the stormwater runoff reduction.

What is a Flowform?

If you are wondering what a Flowform is… don’t worry. You’re not alone.

This website will aim to fully explain the concepts by looking at the past and future.

John Wilkes is the mastermind behind the Flowform technology. John looked to nature and mathematics for natural rhythmic pulses.

Using biomimicry, John could inject rhythm into the water to increase its capacity to support life.

Flowform vessels allow water to flow through them in a sustained, rhythmic flow. This is due to the vessel’s shape.

The Flowforms’ shaped surfaces act as a sympathetic force on the water inside them, creating swinging or pulsing motions. Even though water flows in a steady stream, this happens. This process can be described as creating rhythmic air movement and thus the sound in a wind instrument. These forms are often developed through a lot of experimentation. Each flowform design may require months to perfect. It’s like tuning an instrument.

There are many options for expressing rhythmic flow. This spectrum has been explored in many different ways. Some are very elegant and pleasing artistically, others more functional. The Flowform work is viewed from the artistic side as the unfolding of this series of water sculptures that embody the same idea aesthetically.

FlowForm Applications

Possible Flowform applications include:

  • Biological sewage disposal
  • Municipal swimming pool features
  • School landscape features
  • Public parks
  • City center installations
  • Atriums
  • Patios
  • Public sculpture
  • Bird sanctuary
  • Private gardens
  • Drinking water treatment
  • Irrigation
  • Food processing
  • Farm slurry treatment
  • Germination
  • Therapy baths
  • Hotel features
  • Fruit juice treatments
  • Cattle drinking water
  • Fish breeding

So as you can see after reading the list above, the uses for Flowforms is long and only growing over time. If you’re intrigued, keep checking back as we add more articles on John Wilkes and his amazing work.

View a Flowform in Action

Sometimes it is best to see an unfamiliar concept rather than explain it. Check out the video below to see what a Flowform looks like in action.

This phenomenon was discovered over 40 years ago. Since then, many designs have been developed. Flow forms have delicate water movements, which can be used in small enclosed spaces. However, large shapes also move vigorously and liven up large open areas. Some movements evoke a heartbeat while others resemble slow ‘breathing.’ Some produce a musical tinkling, while others make waves that lap on the shoreline. These abilities have been beneficial in school settings and therapeutic situations.

The book below by John Wilkes will explain this concept more fully:

John Wilkes (1930-2011).

He studied sculpture at The Royal College of Art, London. He also met George Adam (and Theodor Schwenk) during this time. Wilkes was a member of Adams and Schwenk at Germany’s Institute for Flow Sciences. He began to study the flow and rhythms of water and eventually created the Flowform. Wilkes was also a researcher and restorer of Rudolf Steiner’s architectural and sculptural models at Emerson College. He was also the Director at the Virbela Rhythm Research Institute.